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al-Jundī, Anwar

(706 words)

Author(s): Ende, Werner
Anwar al-Jundī (1917–2002) was an Egyptian journalist and literary critic known for his bio-bibliographical reference works and monographs on individual Arab Muslim writers as well as his polemical works against Western cultural influence in the Arab World in general and secularism in particular. Born in the town of Dayrūṭ, al-Jundī first worked as a bank clerk, but managed to develop a keen interest in literary studies outside of work. His early articles appeared in the Egyptian journal Apollo, a short-lived (1932–4) but influential avant-guard literary magazine (Kocarev, Pisatel…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Balāghī, Muḥammad Jawād

(494 words)

Author(s): Ende, Werner
Muḥammad Jawād al-Balāghī (d. 1933) was an Iraqi Imāmī Shīʿī scholar, religious writer, polemicist, and poet. Born in Najaf in 1865–6 to a prominent family of scholars and littérateurs, he was educated first in his hometown, then, from 1888–9 until 1894–5, in al-Kāẓimiyya, afterwards again in Najaf, and then (1908–18) in Sāmarrāʾ. Soon after a second stay in al-Kāẓimiyya, during which he participated in the revolt of 1920, he returned to Najaf, where he led an ascetic life, devoting his time to te…
Date: 2021-07-19


(131 words)

Author(s): Ende, Werner
[German Version] is the widespread designation in the Islamic world for a person with (mainly religious) education. The term seems to be derived from the Arabic Maulā (“lord, master” etc.). Especially in the areas of Turkish and Iranian language and culture, and on the Indian subcontinent, the term has taken on very diverse colorings in the course of history. It can still be used as an honorific title for distinguished scholars, Sufi masters or religio-political leaders; but also, to some degree pejoratively, for members…


(15,859 words)

Author(s): Nagel, Tilman | Ende, Werner | Radtke, Bernd | Rudolph, Ulrich | Krawietz, Birgit | Et al.
[German Version] I. Origin and Spread – II. Doctrine – III. Islamic Philosophy – IV. Islamic Art (Architecture and Book Art) – V. Islamic Studies – VI. Christianity and Islam – VII. Judaism and Islam – VIII. Islam in Europe – IX. Islam in North America – X. Political Islamism I. Origin and Spread 1. Muḥammad and his message In 569 ce, Muḥammad was born in Mecca, a city with the shrine of the Kaʿba at its center. Mecca enjoyed good relations with the Sasanian Empire and its Arab vassal princes in Ḥīra, but considered itself politically independen…