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Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of didactic poems from Heraclea, c. 300 BC N. from Heraclea, physician and poet, end of the 4th cent. BC. He was a pupil of the physician Dieuches [1] (Ath. 1,5), wrote on cookery and composed didactic poems on fishing (Ἁλιευτικόν/ Halieutikón, SH 568-588), on the theriac (Θηριακόν/ Thēriakón: SH 589-594), on medicinal prescriptions (SH 595) and ‘On Banquets (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί/ Deípnōn anagraphaí: Ath. 1,5a). He may be the source on Nicander [4] (cf. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) and Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibl…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Stasinus

(106 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Στασῖνος; Stasînos). Epic poet of unknown date, from Cyprus. According to a widespread tradition lasting until Proclus and Tzetzes, he wrote the Cypria supposedly named after his homeland. According to an anecdote which Pindar may already have known (Pind. fr. 265 Snell-Maehler; but cf. [3.33]), Homer (Homerus [1]) gave the epic to his daughter as a dowry for her marriage to S. (the legend shows that there were problems as to its authorship already in Antiquity). Epic cycle Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 PEG I, 36-64 2 EpGF 28-29 3 M. Davies, The Epic Cyc…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Persinus

(100 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Περσῖνος; Persînos). Epic writer of the Hellenistic period, from Ephesus or Miletus. Author of the Orphic Sōtḗria ('Songs for the Rescue'; Orph. T 178, p. 52 Kern). Two sayings have been passed down to us, one about the tyrant Eubulus, the other as a response to the question who is the best poet ( according to the judgment of all poets, he himself is the best poet, according to the others, it is Homer). P. attributed the invention of the hexameter to Linus. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 666A-666D  U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenische Dichtung, vol. 1…

Musaeus

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος; Mousaîos). [German version] [1] Mythical companion of the Muses Mythical companion of the Muses (whose name is an adjectival derivative of Μοῦσα ( Moûsa; ‘Muse’)), an archegete of poetry and a close associate of Orpheus connected with Eleusis [1] . As a scion of the Muses (and Selene: Pl. Resp. 2,364e), M. was brought up by them (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) and buried on their hill in Athens (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). The origin of M. who lived in Eleusis and Athens (Suda s.v. Μ.) (pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, end of the 5th cent. BC; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A…

Panegyrics

(2,072 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[German version] I. Greek The modern term 'panegyric' derives from πανηγυρικός ( panēgyrikós sc. λόγος/ lógos), a Greek term denoting a speech delivered during a πανήγυρις ( panḗgyris), a real or fictive 'festival', e.g. the Olympic Games. In the fictive sense →Isocrates was the first to call his fourth speech (389 BC) a Panēgyrikós (Isoc. Or. 59 and 84, 12,172; Letter 3,6; cf. Aristot. Rh. 1408b 15-17). In the broadest sense of the word, the forms of the epideictic genre ('display speech', epídeixis; → genera causarum) belong to panegyric oratory; in the rhetorical treatises of…

Hephaestion

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἡφαιστίων; Hēphaistíōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC H. of Pella, friend and probably lover of  Alexander [4]. Their relationship was soon likened to that of  Patroclus and  Achilles [1] and correspondingly embellished. It is doubtful whether he was a childhood friend of Alexander (Curt. 3,12,16), as he was not banished by  Philippus II in 337 BC. The wreath offered to Patroclus at Troy and the scene described in the vulgate version ( Alexander historians) of the c…

Niceratus

(427 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Νικήρατος; Nikḗratos). [German version] [1] Athenian trierarch, 410/409 BC Son of Nicias [1]; learned reciter of Homer (Xen. Symp. 3,5; 4,6; Aristot. Rhet. 1413a). Athenian trierarch (Trierarchy) in 410/409 BC (IG I3 375,36). Of the wealth his grandfather had acquired from silver mines and mine slaves, at the time of his murder by the Thirty ( Triákonta ) in 404/3 BC only 14 talents were left (Lys. 19,47; Xen. Hell. 2,3,39; Diod. 14,5,5). After his murder his uncle Diognetus [1] interceded against the Thirty with the Spartan king Pausanias by placing N.'s son on his knee (Lys. 18,6-10). Kin…

Eulogius

(178 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐλόγιος; Eulógios). Perhaps the person to whom was dedicated the lexicon of Hesychius (6th cent. AD [4; 1. 358]; but [5] dates E. to the period between Theodosius of Alexandria ([4th cent. AD] and Choeroboscus [9th cent. AD]) and who is known through the citations in the Etymologicum Magnum and in the Etymologicum Gudianum. He is also the source of some Homeric epimerisms [2; 3]. E. was a grammarian and his nickname was Scholastikós; he was the author of a didactic book about morphology in ‘Questions and Answers’ (Ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις, ‘Difficulties …

Hermon

(497 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Mountain massif Mountain massif (maximum height 2,814 m) south of the Antilebanon; Hebrew Ḥærmôn (from ḥrm ‘ban, taboo’), Greek Ἀερμών; Aermṓn, Latin Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, ‘mountain of the white-haired man’ / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, ‘snow mountain’. Dt 3:9 equates H. with Phoenician Śiriōn and Amorite Śenīr, hence H. would be found as Šryn in Ugaritic, Šarijana in Hittite and Saniru in Assyrian. Biblical tradition considers H. to be the northern border of the land conquered by Moses and Joshua east of the Jordan (Jos 11:17; Dt 3:8). F…

Helladius

(460 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑλλάδιος; Helládios). [German version] [1] From Antinupolis/Egypt, grammarian, 4th cent. AD H. of Antinupolis in Egypt. Grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, author of a Chrēstomatheía (‘Things worth knowing’) in iambic trimeters. Photius, the only biographical source, took extracts from it (Cod. 279, 529b 25-536a 22), but also knew of a prose epitome (cf. [4. 99; 6. 16]). The encyclopaedic work includes grammatical, etymological, historical and mythological information; on the literary genre cf. [6. 24-26]. Neither a crite…

Maiistas

(122 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Μαϊίστας; Maïístas). Author (his name perhaps Egyptian) of the hexametric aretalogy of Sarapis. This forms the second part (l. 29-84) of an inscription (3rd cent. BC) on a column in the Serapeum of Delos, which tells the history of the cult of the god from its inception to the construction of the first temple [1]. The beginning of the inscription (l. 1-28) comprises the prose chronicle of the priest Apollonius II. M.'s text following may be a Greek aretalogy intended for Greeks, o…

Herennius Philo

(711 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] A. Person H. was an antiquarian and grammarian in the second half of the 1st cent. AD (main source for the biography: Suda s.v. Φίλων Βύβλιος, φ 447, where the text, however, is problematic). His original name was Phílōn, the ethnicon Býblios (after the town Byblos in Phoenicia), the praenomen H. perhaps taken over from Herennius Severus Plin. Ep. 4,28 [4]. He was the teacher of  Hermippus of Berytus. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [German version] B. Works (FGrH 790): Historical and antiquarian works: 1) The ‘Phoenician History’ (Φοινικικὴ ἱστορία or Φοινικικ…

Menophilus

(33 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] of Damascus, known only from 15 hexameters cited by Stobaeus from his poem ‘Tresses (Πλοκαμῖδες/ Plokamîdes), a song on the beauty of his beloved's hair. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 558.
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