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Existence of God, Proofs of the

(4,069 words)

Author(s): Helm, Paul | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Rudolph, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Islamic Theology I. Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of religion deals with the problem of the question of proofs of God in the broader context of delineating the relationship between faith and reason. A relationship between religion and philosophy has existed since antiquity. Plato's thought can be understood as philosophical commentary on popular Greek religion. This interrelationship led (e.g. in the Leges) to reflection on the nature of the divine and creation (Plato, Tim.) along with impulses …

Essentialism

(646 words)

Author(s): Hägler, Rudolf-Peter | Helm, Paul
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Essentialism (from essentia, Lat. translation of Gk οὐσία/ ousía) is described as a philosophical doctrine which ascribes accidental and essential properties to single things. An essential property is understood to be a necessary, but non-trivial property of a thing, which cannot lose this property as long as it exists – for exam…