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Tug̲h̲luḳ Temür

(501 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
(d. 764/1363), Čag̲h̲atayid [ q.v.] k̲h̲ān in Central Asia. The fullest source of information, though largely concerned with his conversion to Islam, is the 10th/16th-century Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī of Mīrzā Ḥaydar Dug̲h̲lāt, who reproduces a Mongol tradition that his ancestor, the amīr Puladči, had brought Tug̲h̲luḳ Temür from the Ḳalmaḳ country and enthroned him as k̲h̲ān of Čag̲h̲atay’s ulus at the age of eighteen ( ca. 752/1351). But whereas Haydar names as his father the k̲h̲ān Esen Buḳa (d. ca. 718/1318), which is chronologically impossible, a 9th/15thcentury genealog…


(897 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-K̲h̲urandizī al-Zaydarī (d. 647/1249-50), secretary and biographer of the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn [ q.v.] Mingīrnī (for this name, usually rendered as Mangubirtī, see Jackson, in Iran , xxviii [1990], 51, n. 1). He was born in K̲h̲urandiz, a fortress near the town of Zaydar and among the dependencies of Nasā in K̲h̲urāsān (Yāḳūt, ii, 415); according to al-Nasawī, his family was believed to have held the place from the establishment of Islam in the region ( Sīra , ed. Houdas, 53). When Nasā b…


(701 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, a region of northern India, lying between lat. 32° and 33° N. and long. 74° and 76° E. and extending east of the Čenāb. It is bounded on the south by the Sialkōt district of the Pand̲j̲āb and on the north by Kas̲h̲mīr, of which it now constitutes a province, covering an area of 12,375 sq. miles. Its capital, the town of the same name, is situated on the right bank of the Tavī. The original name of This ancient principality, which lay in the valleys of the Tavī and the Čenāb, was Durgara, from which is derived the ethnic term Dogrā for its mountaineer inhabitants. Eve…


(5,211 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P. | Andrews, P.A.
( Lahore ), the principal city of the Pand̲j̲āb [ q.v.], situated on the left bank of the Rāwī about 700 feet above sea level, at lat. 31° 35′ N. and long. 74° 20′ E. Its strategic location in the ¶ fertile alluvial region of the upper Indus plain has guaranteed it an important rôle in Indian history, very often as a frontier stronghold and more recently as the capital of the Sikh [ q.v.] empire. Since 1947 it has been included in the republic of Pākistān, of which it is the second largest city. 1. History. Popular etymology connects the foundation of Lāhawr with the mythical Lava (Lōh), …


(491 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, a region of the extreme north of India. It lies between lat. 32° and 36° N and long. 75° and 80° E, and is bounded on the north and east by the Chinese territories of Sin-kiang and Tibet, on the south by the Indian province of Himačāl Prades̲h̲, on the north-west by Baltistān, and on the west by Kas̲h̲mīr, of which it now constitutes a province, covering an area of 30,220 sq. miles. Its capital is Leh. Ladāk̲h̲ is known to the Tibetans as Mangyāl or Māryul. The population may be divided into four racial groups, Čāmpās, Ladāk̲h̲īs, Baltīs and Dārds, of whom the first thr…

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Aybak

(585 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, the first ruler of the Indo-Muslim state which arose after the death of the G̲h̲ūrid S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn (Muʿizz al-Dīn) Muḥammad b. Sām in 1206 and was subsequently to be based at Dihlī. Brought as a slave from Turkestan first to Nīs̲h̲āpūr and then to G̲h̲azna, he was purchased by Muḥammad, then engaged in the reduction of the independent Hindu principalities in northern India, and rose to be amīr- i āk̲h̲ūr (master of the horse) and muḳṭaʿ of Kohŕām (now Ghurām in Patiāla) and Sāmāna. The sources for this period, composed either under Aybak’s hege…

ʿInāyat Ḵh̲ān

(98 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, an obscure general of the Mughal Emperor Awrangzīb [ q.v.]. He was the father-in-law of Tahawwur Ḵh̲ān, one of the principal supporters of Awrangzīb’s son Akbar during the rebellion of 1091-2/1680-1. When in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1091/January 1681 Awrangzīb advanced to Dō-rāha, in the Ad̲j̲mēr region, ʿInāyat Ḵh̲ān was ordered to write to Tahawwur Ḵh̲ān inducing him to desert the prince’s army, ¶ then at Kurkī; Tahawwur Ḵh̲ān complied, but on his arrival in Awrangzīb’s camp some confusion arose in which he was killed. (P. Jackson) Bibliography Sir Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangz…


(587 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
(in full, Waṣṣāf al-Ḥaḍrat “the court panegyrist”), nom-de-plume of S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīh ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿIzz al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh S̲h̲īrāzī, chronicler and poet of Mongol Persia in the early 8th/14th century. He was the author of the Tārīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf (more precisely, Tad̲j̲ziyat al-amṣār wa-tazd̲j̲iyat al-aʿṣār “The allocation of cities and the propulsion of epochs”), a history of the Il-K̲h̲āns [ q.v.] from 658/1260 in five volumes, designed as a sequel to the Tārīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲anāngus̲h̲ā of D̲j̲uwaynī [ q.v.]. The preface is dated S̲h̲aʿbān 699/April-May 1300 ( Tārīk̲h̲-i Waṣṣāf, 6). Thro…

S̲h̲āh-i S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fawāris (d. 786/1384), a prince of the Muẓaffarid [ q.v.] dynasty in Persia (for the correct form of his name, see J. Aubin, La fin de l’état sarbadâr du Khorassan , in JA, cclxii [1974], 101-2 n. 32). Born on 22 D̲j̲umādā II 733/10 March 1333, he was the son of the dynasty’s founder, Mubāriz al-Dīn Muḥammad, who gave him Kirmān as his appanage in 754/1353 and recognised him as his heir. In the division of the Muẓaffarid territories following Mubāriz al-Dīn’s deposition and blinding by his sons in 760/1359…

D̲j̲amāl Ḳars̲h̲ī

(285 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, sobriquet of Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. K̲h̲ālid , scholar and administrator in Turkestān during the Mongol era. He was born at Almali̊g̲h̲ around 628/1230-1, his father a ḥāfiẓ of Balāsāg̲h̲ūn and his mother originating from Merw. He enjoyed the patronage of the local Turkish dynasty founded at Almali̊g̲h̲ [ q.v.] by Būzār (or Uzār), and obtained a position in the chancellery there. In 662/1264, however, he was obliged to leave Almali̊g̲h̲, and for the remainder of his life resided at Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar, though travelling widely in western Turkestān. In 681/1282 he c…

Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī al-Dabīr

(317 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, sobriquet of ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn ʿUmar al-Nahrwālī b. Kamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Makkī al-Āṣafī Ulug̲h̲ K̲h̲ānī , historian in Gud̲j̲arātī under the Muẓaffarid dynasty. He was born in Mecca in 946/1540, the son of a Gud̲j̲arātī official who had been sent there in 941/1535 with the treasure of the Muẓaffarid Bahādur S̲h̲āh Gud̲j̲arātī [ q.v.] and who returned to India in 962/1555, settling in Aḥmadābād. In 965/1559 Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī al-Dabīr entered the service of Muḥammad Ulug̲h̲ K̲h̲an, a noble in the party of ʿImād al-Mulk, who opposed Iʿtimād al-Mulk [see gud̲j̲arāt …


(1,724 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, one of the successor dynasties which arose in Kirmān, Fārs and ʿIrāḳ-i ʿAd̲j̲am following the disintegration of the Īlk̲h̲ānid empire. Their ancestor, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, was allegedly a member of an Arab family from K̲h̲wāf, in K̲h̲urāsān, who during the Mongol advance had migrated to Yazd and entered the service of its atabeg . His grandson S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Muẓaffar was entrusted with the towns of Maybud and Nadūs̲h̲an; but he was subsequently presented to the Īlk̲h̲ān, receiving the office of yasaʾul or chamberlain, then the command of a thousand ( hazāra


(3,678 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P. | Welch, A.
, the longest-lived dynasty to rule over the Dihlī Sultanate [ q.v.], from 720/1320 to 815/1412. 1. History. The founder of the dynasty, G̲h̲āzī Malik Tug̲h̲luḳ, was probably an immigrant belonging to the Turco-Mongol group of the Ḳara’unas, who nomadised in the borderlands between India and Central Asia (see R.C. Jauhri, Ghiyāthu ’d-dīn Tughluqhis original name and descent, in H. Krueger (ed.), Kunwar Muhammad Ashraf commemoration volume, Wiesbaden 1966, 62-6), and under the last two K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī [ q.v.] sultans had fought regularly against the Mongols as muḳṭaʿ

Tog̲h̲a Temür

(615 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
(d. 754/1353), last Mongol Īl-K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] of Persia. He was descended from Čingiz Ḵh̲ān’s younger brother D̲j̲oči K̲h̲asar. His father Suday had received permission from the Īl-K̲h̲ān Abū Saʿīd to enter K̲h̲urāsān, but died in 733/1332-3, and Tog̲h̲a Temür settled in Sarak̲h̲s. In the winter of 736/1335-6, following Abū Saʿīd’s death, he was raised up as sovereign ¶ by the amīrs of K̲h̲urāsān, led by Abū Saʿīd’s governor of the province, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAlī b. ʿAlī Ḳūs̲h̲čī, in opposition to the successive puppet k̲h̲āns enthroned in ʿIrāḳ. In 738/1337-8, …


(378 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Jackson, P.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, Persian poet, littérateur and historian, of Kurdish origin ( ca. 697-759/ ca. 1298-1358), who wrote during the last decades of the Īl-K̲h̲ānid era. His general history, the Mad̲j̲maʿ al-ansāb fi ’l-tawārīk̲h̲ , exists in a number of versions. The first redaction, dedicated to the Īl-K̲h̲ānid Abū Saʿīd’s vizier G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, was produced in 733/1332-3 but was lost in the destruction of the vizier’s house in 736/1336. S̲h̲abānkāraʾī completed a second redac…

S̲h̲āmī, Niẓām al-Dīn

(339 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
(or Niẓām-i S̲h̲āmī), Persian littérateur and chronicler of the late 8th/14th-early 9th/15th centuries. His nisba (S̲h̲āmī < S̲h̲anbī) suggests that he was born in S̲h̲anb-i G̲h̲āzānī, a suburb of Tabrīz. When on 20 S̲h̲awwāl 795/29 August 1393 Tīmūr-i Lang arrived before Bag̲h̲dād, S̲h̲āmī tells us, he was the first of its inhabitants to come and submit to him ( Ẓafar-nāma , i, 139). On his way to the Ḥid̲j̲āz not long before the conqueror’s attack on Aleppo in 803/1400, S̲h̲āmī was detained by the authorities in Aleppo, who suspec…

Badr-i Čāčī

(188 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
, fully Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad Čācī , poet of the 8th/14th century Dihlī Sultanate. A native of Čāč (S̲h̲ās̲h̲, Tas̲h̲kent), he migrated to India and rose to favour at the court of Sulṭān Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.], who conferred on him the style of Fak̲h̲r al-Zamān . His ḳaṣāʾid , which contain references to a number of contemporary events, with the dates often expressed in chronograms, constitute an important source for a period which is notoriously obscure and controversial. It is all the more unfortunate, therefore, that his S̲h̲āh-nāma , an epic chronicle …

Sayfī Harawī

(362 words)

Author(s): Jackson, P.
(Sayf b. Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb), poet and historian of Harāt in the Mongol period. Born in ca. 681/1282, he gained access to the court of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Muḥammad (d. 706/1307), the third malik of the Kart [ q.v.] dynasty of Harāt, in whose honour he claims to have written 80 ḳaṣīdas and 150 ḳiṭʿas . In 706/1306, when Harāt was besieged by the Mongol army of the Īl-K̲h̲ān Öld̲j̲eytü, led by Dānis̲h̲mand Bahādur, Sayfī composed a mat̲h̲nawī , the Sām-nāma , in praise of D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Sām, who conducted a vigorous defence on behalf of the absent malik. On the city’s fall, Sayfī narrowly…