I. Old Testament Sanctification, the “setting apart” of spaces, times, objects, and persons to make them sacred (cf. Lat.
sacer) is represented in the Old Testament by the verb קדשׁ/
qdš piel and niphal, its antonyms חלל/
ḥll I piel and חל/
ḥl, and the antithesis “clean–unclean” טהר–טמא/
ṭhr–ṭmʾ (with reference to holiness: Lev 11:43ff.; 16:19; cf. Deut 14:3ff.; purity and impuraty). Since YHWH represents holiness
per se (Isa 5:16, etc.), sanctification means translating the object in question into the immediate divine realm (cf. the regulati…