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Jansenismus

(2,096 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. AllgemeinDer J., benannt nach Cornelius Jansen d. J. (1585–1638), war die bedeutendste innerkath. Oppositions- und Reformbewegung des 17./18. Jh.s (Religiöse Reformbewegungen). Er war v. a. in Frankreich und den Niederlanden verbreitet, fand aber auch in Spanien, Portugal, Italien und Österreich Anhänger. Der J. zielte ursprünglich auf eine Reform der Theologie und Frömmigkeit unter Rückgriff auf den Kirchenvater Augustinus, doch entstanden in den einzelnen Ausbreitungsgebieten und Entwicklungsphasen verschiedene Ausprägungen. Infolge der päpstli…
Date: 2019-11-19

Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse

(3,383 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Definition Religiöse S. B. sind kollektive Akteure mit relig. Motiven und Zielen, die einen partiellen oder umfassenden Wandel der Verhältnisse in der Religion (eventuell auch in der Gesellschaft) herbeiführen wollen (vgl. Religiöse Reformbewegungen) oder versuchen, bestehende Zustände zu verteidigen und Veränderungen zu verhindern oder rückgängig zu machen (Widerstands-Bewegungen).Hans Schneider2. Geschichte der Begriffe 2.1. AllgemeinAbgeleitet von der B. im physikalischen Sinn (zeitliche Ortsveränderung eines Beobachtungsobjekts) wird der Begri…
Date: 2019-11-19

Böhmisten

(791 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Die Anhänger der Lehren des schlesischen Theosophen und Mystikers Jakob Böhme wurden schon in der polemischen Literatur (Polemik) des 17. Jh.s »B.« genannt. Die B. formierten sich weder zu einer religiösen Sondergemeinschaft noch bildeten sie eine klar abgrenzbare philosophische Schule aus. Mit Gedanken Böhmes verschmolzen von Anfang an andere Traditionen, so dass der »Böhmismus« ein schillerndes Phänomen darstellt.Böhme wirkte zum einen durch seine Theosophie. In den Umbrüchen der Frühen Nz. schien manchen Zeitgenossen wie auch späteren Lesern, dene…
Date: 2019-11-19

Bibelgesellschaft

(689 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. AnfängeB. (engl. Bible Societies) als Organisationen zur Verbreitung der Bibel sind erst im 18./19. Jh. entstanden. Doch die Aufgabe der Bibelverbreitung in der Volkssprache resultiert schon aus dem reformatorischen Verständnis der Bibel als einziger Autorität in christl. Glaubensfragen und des Priestertums aller Getauften, das allein auf die Bibel angewiesen ist (Reformation). Mit der durch den Buchdruck ermöglichten Verbreitung von Luthers Bibelübersetzung, die in außerdt. protest. Ländern zu gleichen Unternehmungen anregte, begann die Entwicklung d…
Date: 2019-11-19

Religiöse Reformbewegungen

(5,022 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans | Reichmuth, Stefan
1. Christentum 1.1. Allgemeines Als R. werden in der Geschichte des Christentums diejenigen relig. Bewegungen (Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse) bezeichnet, die eine reinigende Änderung der Zustände oder verbessernde Neuordnung in der Kirche oder deren Teilbereichen (z. B. Frömmigkeit, Liturgie, Orden) anstreben – im Unterschied zu gegenreformerischen oder ›reaktionären‹ Bewegungen, die Änderungen zu verhindern oder Neuerungen rückgängig zu machen suchen. Wenngleich Reform (von lat. reformare, ›umgestalten‹, ›wiederherstellen‹) dem Wortsinn nach auch die Wie…
Date: 2019-11-19

Bible Society

(818 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Beginnings Bible Societies, organizations for the dissemination of the Bible, first came into being in the 18th/19th century. However, the task of Bible distribution in the vernacular is a natural consequence of the Reformation understanding of the Bible as sole authority in matters of Christian faith and the priesthood of all baptized people, which is dependent only on the Bible (Reformation). The printing-facilitated dissemination of Luther’s Bible translation, which stimulated similar undert…
Date: 2019-10-14

Religious reform movements

(5,320 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans | Reichmuth, Stefan
1. Christianity 1.1. General remarksIn the history of Christianity, the term  religious reform movements comprises those religious movements (Social movements, religious) that aspire to bring about a purifying change in conditions or an improved restructuring in the church or some of its aspects (e.g. devotion, liturgy, monasticism [Order (association)]). These can be contrasted with anti-reformatory or “reactionary” movements that seek to prevent changes or to reverse innovations. Although etymologically reform (from Latin  reformare, “reshape,” “restore”) also …
Date: 2021-08-02

Jansenism

(2,127 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. General observationsJansenism, named after Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), was the most important opposition and reform movement within the Catholic Church of the 17th and 18th centuries (Religious reform movements). It was especially prevalent in France and the Netherlands but also found support in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Austria.Jansenism was originally aimed at reforming theology and piety based on the work of the Church Father St. Augustine, but it took various forms in its different areas of influence and phases of development. A…
Date: 2019-10-14

Behmenism

(906 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Adherents to the teachings of the Silesian theosophist and mystic Jakob Böhme were already called “Behmenists” ( Böhmisten) in the polemical literature (Polemic, theological) of the 17th century. The Behmenists neither formed a special religious community of their own nor did they constitute a clearly definable philosophical school. From the very beginning, Böhme’s ideas merged with other traditions so that “Behmenism” represents a shifting phenomenon.Böhme’s impact came first through his theosophy. In the turmoil of the early modern period, many contemporar…
Date: 2019-10-14

Weyer

(429 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm | Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1515, Grave, Brabant – Feb 24, 1588, Tecklenburg), physician, occultist, and demonologist. Weyer was a disciple of H.C. Agrippa of Nettesheim. ¶ After studying in Paris, he served as personal physician to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Kleve-Burg from 1550 to 1578. He attacked the Hexenhammer (first publ. 1487) of the Dominicans Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Institoris and sought – against strong resistance (including from J. Bodin) – to unmask belief in witches (II) as a delusion, but he was no more successful tha…

Inspiration Communities

(256 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] are communities which arose out of radical Pietism and still exist today. As early as around 1690, ecstatic, visionary and prophetic phenomena became manifest in the Pietist movement. After the appearance of ecstatic prophets from the Camisards, who came to Germany via England and the Netherlands, German prophets and prophetesses as well started to appear as “mediums”; in 1714, they sparked an enthusiastic “inspirational awakening,” primarily among the radical Pietists, which was …

Conciliar Theory

(1,651 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans | Wohlmuth, Josef | Birmelé, André | Becker, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Dogmatics – III. Church Law I. Church History Conciliarism (conciliar theory) is the doctrine that the general council is the highest ecclesial authority such that even the pope is subject to its supremacy. Its roots lie primarily in the discussions of medieval canon law concerning the relationship between papal immunity and responsibility. A discussion concerning the relationship of the infallibility of the church promised Peter (Matt 16:18) to …

Nicholas V, Pope

(167 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (pontificate Mar 6, 1447 – Mar 24, 1455; Tommaso Parentucelli, born Nov 15, 1397 in Sarzana, Liguria). After studies in Florence and Bologna, from 1426 he was in the curia; 1443 vice-treasurer, 1444 bishop of Bologna, 1446 (in recognition of his merits in the fight against the Council of Basel) cardinal; in 1447, elected pope as a compromise candidate. Nicholas promoted scholarship and the arts to lasting effect (beginning of Renaissance papacy). In 1448 he concluded the Vienna Co…

Giessen, University of

(627 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The University of Giessen is one of the post-Reformation/confessional institutions. As a reaction to the introduction of the Reformed confession in the Hessian University of Marburg (Marburg, University of), Count Ludwig V of ¶ Hessen-Darmstadt established a Lutheran Paedagogium in Giessen in 1605 which was elevated to university status in 1607 by imperial privilege (Ludwigs-Universität, Ludoviciana). Owing to claims of traditional and legal succession, it was moved in 1624/1625 to occupied Marburg during the Thirty Years War and reop…

Ronsdorf Sect

(140 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The Ronsdorf Sect grew out of a Philadelphian society (Philadelphians) in Elberfeld. Its central figures were the merchant Elias Eller (1690–1750) and the baker’s daughter Anna v. Buchel (1702–1743; from 1733 Eller’s wife), who as “Mother of Zion” received ecstatic revelations (Inspirationist communities) regarding the imminent millennial kingdom (Millenarianism). Their son Benjamin (1734–1735) was to be the messiah. Even pastors, for example F.D.E. Schleiermacher’s grandfather Da…

Constance, Council of

(274 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The reform Council of Constance met from 1414 to 1418. The joint efforts of the German king, Sigismund (1410–1437), and the pope of the Pisan obedience (Pisa, Council of), John XXIII, to heal the Western Schism led to a council held in the imperial free city of Constance; it became the largest ecclesiastical congress of the Middle Ages. Its major tasks were to restore the unity of the church ( causa unionis), oppose the heresies of J. Wycliffe and J. Hus ( causa fidei), and reform the church ( causa reformationis). When John XXIII sought to evade the council's demand t…

Arnold, Gottfried

(552 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1666, Annaberg, Saxony – May 30, 1714, Perleberg, Altmark), the son of a Latin teacher, studied at Wittenberg from 1685 to 1689; there he came under influence of the polyhistor Conrad Samuel Schurtzfleisch (1641–1708). He turned from orthodox scholastic theology to Pietism under the influence of the writings…

Crocius

(392 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Mar 29, 1586, Laasphe – Dec 7, 1655, Bremen). After studying at Herborn, Marburg, and Basel (Dr.theol. 1609), the Reformed theologian Ludwig Crocius became a pastor in Bremen and professor at the Gymnasium Illustre, of which he later became headmaster. With M. Martini and Heinrich Isselburg, he participated in the Synod of Dort as a delegate from the Bremen church. He was a prominent representative of the school of Bremen theologians fou…

Dippel, Johann Konrad

(373 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1673, Schloß Frankenstein near Darmstadt – Apr 25, 1734, Schloß Wittgenstein near Laasphe) was a Protestant theologian, alchemist, and physician. Having begun in Gießen, Dippel continued his studies of (the artes liberales and then) theology in Straßburg. Here, he encountered ¶ Pietism – with which he had become acquainted through J.H. May but initially rejected – by reading the writings of P.J. …

Pisa, Council of

(155 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1409). After the failure of various attempts to put an end to the Western Schism (Papacy: II),most cardinals of the two rival popes (Gregory XII [1406–1415] in Rome, Benedict XIII [1394–1417/1423] in Avignon) renounced their obedience to them, and together called a council in Pisa. This condemned both popes (without deciding on their legitimacy) for their obdurate behavior, and deposed them. However, since these popes did not submit, and they continued to receive political suppor…
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