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Leisure

(1,560 words)

Historiographical methods

(4,723 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The meaning of the term 'historiographical methods' (HM) ranges from descriptions of certain techniques and work methods, almost in the sense of a craft, to discussions of fundamental (methodological) questions about the possibilities and modes of historical understanding. In the field of ancient history, which is both a historical discipline as well as the stu…

Geomoroi

(338 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (γεωμόροι; geōmóroi, Dor. γ…

Social conflicts

(2,089 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Definition SC are in the following understood as conflicts conducted between different social groups, in the course of which various forms of violence or threat arise. Attempts to collate ancient SC under generalizing headings such as 'Struggle of the Orders' or - primarily in Marxist scholarship - 'class struggles' [13] rema…

Hippeis

(696 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] Initially the term

Partheniae

(159 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (παρθενίαι/ partheníai). The word partheniae is derived from Greek παρθένος/ parthénos, 'virgin', and designates a group of Spartans who left Greece and founded Tarentum (Taras) toward the end of the 8th cent. BC. Our oldest sources (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Aristot. Pol. 5,7,1306 b 29-31) probably already knew no more than the name and the fac…

Ges anadasmos

(881 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (γῆς ἀναδασμός; gês anadasmós). The term ges andasmos ( GA); (‘apportioning of land’, ‘land distribution’) was generally applied to a redistribution of agricultural land (‘land reform’). Such measures were important not only socially and economically but were also highly important politically, as landownership and citizenship were closely connected in the Greek polis. In the context of other measures, especially χρεῶν ἀποκοπή ( chreṓn apokopḗ, liquidation of debts) the

Ephebeia

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
(ἐφηβεία; ephēbeía) [German version] I. Definition The ephebeia generally described a life stage in Greece between childhood and manhood, more specifically puberty, and in the more narrow sense the phase at its conclusion. This is valid from a biological point of view and is consequently treated in medical writings. As a rule, an age between 12 and 18, sometimes 12 and 20 is used to define ephebeia; occasionally the previous level after the end of childhood is described with its own t…

Friendship

(2,316 words)

Pentakosiomedimnoi

(320 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (πεντακοσιομέδιμνοι/ pentakosiomédimnoi, literally 'five-hundred-bushelers') were the members of the uppermost census-class in Athens. It was probably Solon that added them to the existing groups ( hippeís , zeugítai , thetai ), which were formalised in respect to financial gradings (Aristot. Ath. pol. 7,3ff.; 47,1; Aristot. Pol. 1274a 15ff.; Plut. Solon 18,1ff.). Eligibility for certain offices was connected to membership of this class; this was still the case in the 4th cent. BC for the office of treasurer (ταμίας/ tamías ; Aristot. Ath.…

Hoplitai

(754 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] The word ὁπλίτης ( hoplítēs, pl. hoplítai) is derived from ὅπλον ( hóplon, ‘equipment, shield’; esp. in the pl. ὅπλα, hópla ‘weapons’) and describes heavily armed foot soldiers. Their bronze armament (panoply) consisted of a round shield of 0,9 m diameter with a vambrace (πόρπαξ, pórpax) in the centre and a handgrip (ἀντιλαβή, antilabḗ) at the edge, a helmet, a breastplate, greaves, which reached from the ankles to above the knees, a spear for thrusting as well as a short sword for close-quarters combat. There are archaeological re…

Eupatridai

(322 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (Εὐπατρίδαι; Eupatrídai). The term is a collective name initially for the nobility in Athens and it means descendants ‘of good fathers’. It reflects an important phase in the development of the social elite into an aristocracy, a phase in which there was less emphasis or not sole emphasis on the aspects of habitus, life style and wealth that were originally constitutive for the Greek nobility but rather an emphasis on aristrocratic descent that marked a clearer distinction. The E. consisted of lineages (γένη,

Revenge

(900 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
(τιμωρία/ timōría, τίσις/ tísis; Latin ultio, vindicta , poena). [German version] A. Social conditions Revenge, a regular central element of relationships in human social structure, is encountered in Graeco-Roman history in specific forms which are very…

Family

(7,857 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The family in Mesopotamia was organized in a patrilineal manner; remnants of matrilineal family structures are to be found in Hittite myths, among the Amorite nomads of the early 2nd millennium BC and the Arab tribes of the 7th cent. BC. As a rule monogamy was predominant; marriage to concubines with lesser rights was possible, while there is evidence of polygamy particularly in…

Euergetism

(995 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] I. General points The concept is derived from Greek   euergétēs (benefactor) and was coined as a scholarly term by A. Boulanger following the example of the comparable modern Greek euergetes [13. 22]. It refers to a central phenomenon in the ethics of reciprocity specific to Graeco-Roman civilization that is part of the …

Slavery

(5,179 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Müller-Wollermann, Renate | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Heinrichs, Johannes (Bonn) | Prinzing, Günther | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Mesopotamian cuneiform texts attest to slavery in the ancient Near East from the early 3rd millennium BC [1]. However, at no time were slaves t…

Pelatai

(161 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (πελάται/ pelátai, sg.: πελάτης, -τας/ pelátēs, - tas) is a general term in Greek for dependents. In the time of Solon (late 7th-early 6th cents. BC) it may have had a technical meaning analogous to hektḗmoroi in Athens (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 2,2) which, in any case, was lost. By the time of Plato (Plat. Euthyphr. 4c) pelátēs describes seasonal workers free by civil law (Poll. 3,82). The word thus had a meaning similar to thetes, and the two terms were often used synonymously.

Thetes

(391 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg)
[German version] (θῆτες; thêtes). According to the oldest evidence (Hom. Od. 4,644; 11,489; Hes. Op. 602), members of the lower peasant class in Greek communities of the Archaic Period. In all likelihood they were freemen in the sense of personal law, living as domestics in the home of their employer, at first mostly farmers, or hiring themselves out as day-labourers or seasonal workers. The word therefore later became a synonym for 'wage worker' (Pl. Plt. 290a; Isoc. Or. 14,48; Aristot. Pol. 1278a…