phálanx). [German version] I. The phalanx of hoplites As early as in Homer the word
phalanx is used to describe a battle-line or a lined-up army section (cf. e.g. Hom. Il. 11,214f.; 13,126f., cf. 16,215-217).
Phalanx is used, like στίξ (
stíx, '(battle-)rank'), almost always in the plural,
phálanges; after Homer the expression is not used again until Xenophon (Xen. An. 1,8,17; 6,5,27; Xen. Cyr. 1,6,43; Xen. Hell. 4,3,18; 6,5,18). Today it is recognised that by the Homeric period (8th cent. BC) mass fighting was already decisive; the
phalanx as a uniformly equipped and centr…