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Aristagoras

(325 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀρισταγόρας, ion. Ἀρισταγόρης). [English version] [1] Tyrann von Kyzikos (Ende 6. Jh. v. Chr.) Tyrann von Kyzikos, bei Hdt. 4,138 erwähnt, weil er mit einem Flottenkontingent den Perserkönig Dareios beim Feldzug gegen die Skythen ca. 513 v. Chr. unterstützte [1. 87, 569]. Cobet, Justus (Essen) [English version] [2] Tyrann von Kyme (um 500 v. Chr.) Sohn des Herakleides, Tyrann von Kyme, von Herodot (4,138) neben A. [1] als bedeutend in der Aiolis genannt; er war vor Ausbruch des Ion. Aufstands 499 v. Chr. an der Expedition gegen Naxos beteiligt, wu…

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Pittacus

(691 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Πιττακός/ Pittakós: MSS; Φίττακος/ Phíttakos: MS 562, Alc., papyrus). Tyrant of Mytilene, early 6th cent. BC (Alc. 87 Diehl [2. vol. 1] = 348 Lobel/Page = Voigt), considered one of the Seven Sages (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diod. Sic. 9,11f.; Str. 13,2,3; Diog. Laert. 1,75 and 77; Plut. Mor. 147b et passim). His father, Hyrrhas (Alc. 24a Diehl = 129 Lobel/Page = Voigt) is said to have come from Thrace (Duris FGrH 76 F 75; Suda s.v. Π.), where the personal name P. is attested (Thuc. 4,107). In 607/6 BC (Jer. Chron. on 607/6), P. was strategos in the war with Athens over Sigeum (Str. …

Polydorus

(886 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύδωρος/ Polýdōros, Lat. Polydorus). [German version] [1] King of Thebes, son of Cadmus King of Thebes, son of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia (Hes. Theog. 978; Eur. Phoen. 8; Hyg. Fab. 179), husband of Nyctis who was one of Nycteus' daughters (Apollod. 3,40). According to Pausanias, P. succeeded Cadmus to the Theban throne (Paus. 9,5,3). In Euripides, on the other hand, P. is not the heir apparent - there, an aged Cadmus hands the Theban throne to his grandson Pentheus (Eur. Bacch. 43 f. and 213). Although early…

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Aristagoras

(341 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀρισταγόρας; Aristagóras, Ionic Ἀρισταγόρης; Aristagórēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cyzicus (end of the 6th cent. BC) Tyrant of Cyzicus, mentioned in Hdt. 4,138 because he supported the Persian king  Darius with a naval unit during his campaign against the Scythians about 513 BC [1. 87, 569]. Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Cyme (around 500 BC) Son of Heracleides, tyrant of Cyme, mentioned by Herodotes (4,138) as being important in the Aeolis along with A. [1]; he participated in the expedition against Naxos before the Ionia…

Histiaeus

(337 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Ἱστιαῖος; Histiaîos). [German version] [1] Son of Lysagoras, tyrant of Miletus, approx. 513 BC Son of Lysagoras, tyrant of Miletus, spokesman for the Ionians on the Ister, urging to maintain the bridge for  Darius' [1] return from the Scythian campaign c. 513 BC with the argument that their  tyrannis depended on Darius (Hdt. 4,137). His disproportionately elaborate biography in Herodotus reveals two tendencies: he is the clever, ambitious hero without success; he is blamed for the negative course that the Ionian Revolt took [2. 486f.…

Hippoclus

(111 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Ἵπποκλος; Híppoklos). H., (probably the first) tyrant of Lampsacus, was supported by the Persians and took part in the Scythian campaign of  Darius [1] I c. 513 BC (Hdt. 4,138).  Hippias [1] of Athens concluded a marriage alliance with him through the marriage of his daughter Archedice with H.' son and successor Aeantides, which at the same time meant a move in the direction of the Persians (Thuc. 6,59) and possibly was a reason for Sparta's intervention in Athens in 511/510 BC [1. 301].  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 D. M. Lewis, in: CAH 4, 21988. H. Be…

Theomestor

(108 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Θεομήστωρ; Theomēstōr). Son of Androdamas from Samos, as a triḗrarchos in the Persian navy at the battle of Salamis [1] in 480 BC he sank Greek ships and was therefore installed as tyrant in Samos after Aeaces [2] (Hdt. 8,85). Without his knowledge the Samians negotiated with the Greek navy (Hdt. 9,90; cf. 9,103). When the Greeks assembled in Samos after their victory at Mycale in 479 (Hdt. 9,106), there is no further mention of T. Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 115 f.; 588  L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996,…

Simus

(185 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
(Σῖμος/ Sîmos). [German version] [1] Ruler in Larisa, 4th cent. BC Representative of a group of Aleuadae, ruler in Larisa [3] (Aristot. Pol. 1306a 26-30) about 358-344 BC; his name appears on coins of the city (HN p. 299). He gained his position from being a mediator (ἄρχων μεσίδιος/ árchōn mesídios, 'mediator plenipotentiary') in the oligarchic conflict, an example for Aristotle (contra [1. 503; 2. 295, 672; 3. 196; 4. 364-366]). The cruelty of his reaction to the killing of his brother was proverbial (Aristot. fr. 166 R.; Callim. fr. 588; sch…

Peitholaus

(163 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen)
[German version] (Πειθόλαος; Peithólaos). Third son of Iason [2] of Pherae. P. was involved in the murder of his brother-in-law Alexander [15] in 358 BC - this may have been the situation in which Isocrates's Epist. 6 to the sons of Iason was written - and in the tyrannies of the brothers Teisiphonus (358-355) and Lycophron [3] (355-352). He retreated with the latter after surrendering Pherae to Philippus [4] II of Macedon in 352 (Diod. Sic. 16,37,3); the two then supported Sparta in the Peloponnes…

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Cleitarchus

(457 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κλείταρχος; Kleítarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria 343/42-341 BC Tyrant of Eretria. Even as a banned exile C. unsuccessfully attempted in 349/8 BC to seize Eretria, e.g., with the help of Philip II against an Athenian army under Phocion (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with Schol. [1. 318, n. 2]). Philip's intervention in Euboea in 343 and 342 [1. 502f., 545-549] brought C. to power (Dem. Or. 8,36; 9,57f.; 18,71; 19,87). Phocion expelled him in 341 (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 160; Diod. Sic. 16,74,1).  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, G. T. Griffith,…

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41)…

Troy

(10,863 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pistorius, Kerstin
Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Cobet, Justus (Essen) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Homer sets his tale of the wrath of Achilles and the battle for Troy (T.) in a memorial landscape whose reality was entirely due to the epic and the history of its reception. Troy was placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998, 130 years after Heinrich Schliemann first appeared on the site (fig. 1). Whoever "henceforth" sails the Hellespont by ship will gaze at the funeral mounds of the heroes, visible from afar, as we read in the Iliad (7,85-91 with reference to Ajax) and the Ody…

Lycophron

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Λυκόφρων; Lykóphrōn). [German version] [1] Younger son of Periander of Corinth The younger son of Periander of Corinth and Melissa, daughter of Procles of Epidaurus. In the war between Periander and his father-in-law, L. is sent to Cercyra and murdered there by the Cercyraeans, who presumably considered him a tyrant and successor of Periander. Legend-building in an early phase can be seen in Herodotus (3,50-53; cf. Diog. Laert. 1,94f.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 60). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Founder of the tyrannis in Pherai, c. 404/390 BC Founder of the t…

Myrsilus

(356 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρσιλος; Mýrsilos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Mytilene, c. end of the 7th cent. BC Pilloried as the ‘tyrant of Mytilene in the fragments of the lyric poet Alcaeus [4] (oldest documentary evidence for the word monarchía ), M. is therefore ranked by Strabo alongside Melanchrus and Pittacus (Str. 13,2,3). His name points to Lydia (Hdt. 1,7 and he was possibly part of the Cleanactid family (schol. to Alcaeus 112,23 Lobel-Page = Voigt). After Melanchrus' overthrow he became a tyrant and survived a conspiracy…
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