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Katechismus

(2,220 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Albrecht, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
1. AllgemeinK. (lat. catechismus von griech. katḗchēsis, » mündlicher Unterricht«) bezeichnete seit der Spätantike den Unterricht des erwachsenen Taufbewerbers, seit Einführung der Säuglingstaufe im 2./3. Jh. die Unterweisung der Gläubigen ( Katechetik). In der Frühen Nz. bürgerte sich der Begriff zur Bezeichnung von systematisch gegliederten und didaktisch aufbereiteten Schriften religiöser Elementarunterweisung ein. Diese wurden auch ench(e)iridion (griech., »Handbüchlein«), institutio (lat., »Unterricht«) oder summa (lat., »Gesamtheit«) genannt. Adress…
Date: 2019-11-19

Catechism

(2,277 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Albrecht, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
1. General In Late Antiquity, the term “catechism” (Latin  catechismus from Greek  katéchesis, “oral instruction”) came into use for the instruction of adult catechumens; when infant baptism was introducted in the 2nd/3rd century, it was applied to the instruction of the faithful (Catechetics). In the early modern era, the term came to be applied to systematically organized works designed for elementary religious instruction. Other terms used included  ench( e) iridion (Greek, “small handbook”),  institutio (Latin, “instruction”), and  summa (Latin, “sum”). Catec…
Date: 2019-10-14

Leontyev, Konstantin Nikolaevič

(158 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Leont'ev; Jan 13, 1831, Kudinovo near Kaluga – Nov 12, 1891, Sergiev Posad), was initially a physician before entering the diplomatic service and finally becoming a censor. As a cultural philosopher, his worldview was shaped by aesthetic considerations. Beauty in the sense of diversity, power, and fullness was for him an objective fact. He thus became the advocate of Byzantine theocracy, ¶ aristocracy, and popular culture against democratic liberalism, petit-bourgeois attitudes, and egalitarianism. His return to the Orthodox faith following…

Tartu

(927 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter | Maurer, Trude
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric Tartu (Estonian; Ger. Dorpat, Russ. Yuryev) is the oldest city in Estonia (Baltic countries); with a population of 103,000 (2009), it is also the second largest. It was founded in 1224 by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their capture of an ancient fortress on the Emajogi, connecting Lake Võrtsjärv with Lake Peipus. Bishop Hermann, appointed as bishop for the Ests, established his residence in Tartu in 1224 and in 1228 began construction of the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the 14th and 15th centuries the largest spec-¶ imen of sacred …

Warsaw

(314 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Warszawa), the capital of Poland, with a population of 1.71 million (2009), goes back to a trading settlement established in the 11th/12th century on the left bank of the Vistula; in 1413 it received Kulm rights. From 1406 to 1526, it was the official residence of the Piast dukes of Masovia. When the dynasty died out, Warsaw was incorporated into the crown of Poland. The Sejm met there for the first time in 1529; after 1569 it met there regularly, and as a result the royal court …

Vvedensky, Aleksandr Ivanovich

(168 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 30, 1889, Vitebsk – Jul 25, 1946, Moscow), apologist and schismatic metropolitan. Originally a teacher and a military chaplain in World War I, in 1917 as archpriest of St. Petersburg and secretary of a leftist church organization he was already opposing the restoration of the Moscow patriarchate. When Patriarch Tikhon succumbed to house arrest, on May 18, 1923, Vvedensky and two ¶ other priests took over the patriarchal chancery, thus enabling the formation of the “supreme governing body” of the modernist “Living Church” movement. In rec…

Starets

(365 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (pl. startsy) is the Russian equivalent to the Greek word γέρων/ gérōn; it denotes an experienced (and therefore usually elderly) ascetic, whose spiritual direction younger ascetics as well as Christians living in the world accept without question. The roots this phenomenon go back to Eastern monasticism in the Early Church. St. Anthony is the prototypical starets, but this form of spiritual direction did not fully come into its own until the late 18th century in Russia, when Paisius Velichkovsky left Athos for Moldavia with 60 discip…

Aleksei

(189 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1293, Moscow – Feb 12, 1378, Moscow), Metropolitan of Moscow, was a monk in the Epiphany monastery in Moscow at the age of 20 and was already involved in the administration of the Russian Metropolitanate at the age of 26. His appointment as “Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia” was by his Greek predecessor, Feognost, in 1353 in Constantinople…

Ermland

(293 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish: Warmia), as one of the four bishoprics established by the Orders of Germany in 1243 in Prussia and incorporated into the archdiocese of Riga in 1245/1246, initially encompassed the region between the River Elbing and Passarge and between Pregel and Angerapp. But only the region in which the bishop was also the ruler, comprising a third of the diocese, wa…

Kartachev, Anton Vladimirovich

(171 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1875, Sep 10 – 1960, Paris) was one of the most prominent lay theologians of Russia in the 20th century. He lectured in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) until 1917, where he also chaired the Society for Philosophy of Religion, and was from 1925 at the theological institute of St. Serge in Paris (of which he was a cofounder), where he taught church history as well as Old Testament. In 1959, he was able to publish his main work in two volumes, Očerki po istorii Russkoj Cerkvi, sketches of the history of the Russian Church. Appointed chief procurator of the Holy Synod by…

Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

(178 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1036–1040, Szczepanów – Apr 11, 1079, Cracow), martyr bishop and patron saint of Poland. Initially a parish priest in Czembocz, as bishop of Cracow (from 1072) he came into bitter conflict with King Boleslav II, which cost ¶ him his life. Church tradition has it that he was slain by the king himself during mass in the Church of St. Michael because he had rebuked the king for his immoral way of life, but the alternative tradition is more believable – that he was condemned to death as a traitor for his political opposition and was gruesomely executed by truncatio membrorum. His…

Palaeologus, Jacob

(170 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1520, Chios island – 1585, Rome), radical Antitrinitarian who claimed to be descended from the last imperial dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. In trouble with the Inquisition as a Dominican friar in Italy, he was able to flee in 1559. He was in Prague in 1570/1571, in Krakow in 1571/1572, and in Klausenburg from 1572 to 1574. In 1573, he traveled to Turkey and twice to Poland. In 1575, Palaeologus lived in Alzen near Sibiu (Ger. Hermannstadt), Romania, then in Poland and Moravi…

Kettler, Gotthard

(188 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Goddert; c. 1517, near Lippstadt – 1587, Kurland) was the last grand master of the Teutonic Order in Livonia. Following the collapse of the order state, he accepted Polish suzerainty and became the first duke of Kurland in 1562, a part of the territory that had previously belonged to the order and for which the capital Mitau (Jelgava) was eventually built in the vicinity of an old castle. Marrying Anna of Mecklenburg in 1566, he established a dynasty which lasted until 1737. Kurl…

Gorazd, Saint

(175 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Matěj Pavlík; May 26, 1879, Hrubá Vrbka, near Hodonín – Sept 4, 1942. Prague). Gorazd, bishop of Moravia and Silesia, was the founder of Czech Orthodoxy. Having been a Roman Catholic chaplain in ¶ Kromeríz, in 1920 he joined the Czechoslovakian Church, which had broken its ties with Rome. In 1921 he was sent to Belgrade to be consecrated bishop by the Serbian patriarch, thus securing apostolic succession. As this went together with a sincere conversion to Orthodoxy, in 1924 he broke with the Czechoslovakian Churc…

Kulm

(195 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish Chełmno), a city founded on the lower course of the Weichsel River in 1232 and a bishop's seat from 1243. The cathedral chapter established there by Bishop Heidenreich in 1251 was incorporated into the Teutonic order (Orders of Germany) from 1264 to 1466. Originally suffragan to the archbishopric of Riga, the diocese was integrated into the ecclesial province of Gniezno (Gnesen) in 1466. Bishop Johannes Dantiscus (1530–1538) and S. Hosius (1549–1551) succesfully warded off…

Bryanchaninov, Ignaty, Saint

(169 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Dimitrii Aleksandrovich; Feb 5, 1807, Pokrovskoe, near Gryazovets – Apr 30, 1867, Nikolo-Babaev, near Kostroma) was a Russian ascetic, spiritual writer, and bishop. In 1827, when the aristocratic graduate of the St. Petersburg Engineering School was released from military service for medical reasons, he struck up an acquaintance with the monk…

Poland

(3,123 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. General The name Poland derives from the name of one of the West Slavic tribes that joined together in the 9th and 10th centuries to form the Polish nation; it characterizes the members of this tribe as field-dwellers ( Polani or Poleni). The kingdom, founded by the Piast dynasty, was first called Polonia around the year 1000. Today the official name of the state is Rzeczpospolita Polska (Republic of Poland). ¶ Geographically, Poland is bounded by Germany to the west, by the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation to the north, …

Platon of Moscow

(164 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Petr Egorov, later Levšin; Jun 29, 1737, Chashnikovo near Moscow – Nov 11, 1812, Vifaniya near Sergiyev Posad), metropolitan of Moscow. After study at the Moscow academy, Platon taught there, and later at the seminary of Trinity St. Sergius Monastery. As its rector from 1761, and a gifted preacher, he made such a strong impression on Catherine II that she appointed him as her son’s tutor in religion. In 1766 he became archimandrite of the monastery, which he had already led from …

Radziwill

(362 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] 1. Nicholas the Red (Mikołai Rudy Radziwiłł; Apr 27, 1512 – Apr 27, 1584, Vilnius), high chancellor and high hetman of Lithuania, from 1566 (following his cousin Nicholas the Black [see 2 below]) voivode of Vilnius; he became a Calvinist c. 1564. His descendants remained faithful to the Reformed confession and, until the line failed in 1667, ensured the continuation of Reformed parishes on the Radziwill estates (of the Birse branch) in Lithuania. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die Radziwills. Die Geschichte einer großen europäischen Familie, 1968, 79–…

Poznań, Bishopric

(313 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The see of Poznań was erected in 968 as a missionary bishopric for all Poland, after the Piast duke Mieszko I began the process of Christianizing Poland with his baptism in 966. By 999/1000, however, it had already been superseded by the erection of the archiepiscopal see of Gniezno, to which it became suffragan at the beginning of the 11th century. From then on, it included the center of Great Poland and the southern part of Mazovia. In 1232 Bishop Paweł Grzymała was granted the …
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