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(1,149 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
Jālor (Jalore, ancient Jābālipura, latitude N 25°35′, longitude E 72°62′) is a town and the headquarters of the district of Jālor in Rajasthan, about 121 kilometres south of Jodhpur. In Mughal times it was the headquarters of a revenue district of the ṣūba (province) of Ajmer. It is famous as a seat of Jain religion and scholarship and for the history of its fort. The siege of the fort by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khaljī (r. 695–716/1296–1316) found literary expression first in the ninth/fifteenth century and figures also in the modern national discourse. 1. Fort Situated on a hill, at an elevation …
Date: 2021-07-19

Dādū Dayāl

(5,763 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
Dādū Dayāl (1545?-1603) was a religious teacher and poet in the Sant tradition who lived in Rajasthan and gave rise to a sect named the Dādūpanth (“Path of Dādū”). Dādū is the respectful endearing Rajasthani term for “grandfather” rather than a variant of the Muslim name Dā῾ūd. Dayāl(u) (“Compassionate”), sometimes also Dīndayāl(u) (“Compassionate with the Afflicted”), is an epithet attached to his name. Both epithets were used by Dādū himself for God and were hence applied by his followers to the master himself.LifeOn Dādū’s life, the only near-contemporary sources are the h…
Date: 2020-05-18


(2,390 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
Jaipur (Hindi Jayapura) is the capital of the state of Rajasthan in northwestern India (latitude N 26°55′, longitude E 75°49′) and has a population of more than three million six hundred thousand (estimate for 2018). 1. Early history Its walled city, on which this article focuses, was built by King Sawāī Jayasiṃha (Jaisingh, r. 1112–56/1700–43) as the new residence of the Rājpūt Kachhavāhā dynasty. The former residence, Āmer (also Āmber), now part of Jaipur, retained its ritual function for the dynasty (Horstmann, Jaipur 1778). With construction work under way, the city’s offi…
Date: 2021-07-19


(257 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
[German Version] (born in the first half of the 15th cent.?) was a poet-saint from northern India. He was born into an Islamized lower Hindu caste of weavers in which the Tantric tradition (Tantrism) of the Nāthyogīs was cultivated. His activities are linked with Benares and Magahar (near Gorakhpur). Kabīr is considered the most significant poet of the Sant- Bhakti. A monistic ontology and the emphasis on human mortality and their being in need of mercy justified his claim of egalitarian access to…

Ādi Granth

(315 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
[German Version] This Ādi Granth is the holy scripture of the Sikhs (Sikhism), also called Gurū-Granth. The standard version (see below) is titled Ādi Srī Gurū Granth Sāhibjī, "The guru in first position in the form of the book." He was appointed by the 10th and final guru, Gobind Singh (period of office: 1675-1708), to continue the human succession of gurus since its founder, Nānak (1469-1539) and as the ultima…


(1,444 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika | Cheetham, David A.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Beginnings. Sikhism was brought into being at the turn of the 16th century by Guru Nānak in the Punjab (Pakistan/northern India). At that time the community called itself Nānak-panth (“path of Nānak”) or gurmat (“teaching of the guru”). As the community grew more complex, subgroups with various names emerged. Within the North Indian bhakti of the Sants, Sikhism represents a regional variant, which nevertheless is aware of its ties to both the Sant tradition and in part also the Sufi tradition (Islam: II, 5) of th…


(1,271 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika | Cheetham, David A.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich 1.Gründung. Der S. wurde an der Wende vom 15. zum 16.Jh. von Gurū Nānak im Punjab (Pakistan bzw. Nordindien) ins Leben gerufen. Die Eigenbez. der Gemeinschaft lautete damals »Pfad Nānaks« (Nānak-panth) oder auch »Lehre des Gurū« (gurmat). Mit der Differenzierung der Gemeinschaft traten entsprechende Gruppenbez. hinzu. Innerhalb der nordindischen Bhakti der Sants stellt der S. eine regionale Sonderform dar, die sich jedoch mit der Sant-Tradition ebenso ver…


(13,595 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Freiberger, Oliver | Mürmel, Heinz | Horstmann, Monika
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Religious Studies – III. Church History – IV. Buddhism – V. India I. Terminology Monasticism is a collective term for an alternative way of life, always religiously motivated, that includes asceticism but is also characterized by a more or less radical withdrawal from society (the “world”) as well as from the monastics' own community of faith. The term monk commonly used in Christianity (from secular Gk μοναχός/ monachós, “solitary,” Lat. monachus, borrowed by way of a hypothetical 8th-century monichus* into Old High German [ munih] and othe…


(17,207 words)

Author(s): Brück, Michael v. | Gordon, Richard L. | Herrmann, Klaus | Dan, Joseph | Köpf, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. History – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Practical Theology – VI. Islamic Mysticism – VII. Hindu Mysticism – VIII. Taoist Mysticism I. The Concept The concept of mysticism is closely linked to the development of the history of religion in Europe and the term must not be taken and applied uncritically as a general term for a phenomenologically determined group of phenomena in other religions (see also II, 3 below). Attempts at definition are either phenomenolog…


(9,205 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bibel und antikes Judentum 1.Altes Testament a) AllgemeinP. (griech. ποι´ησις/poi´ēsis) bez. in den bibl. Wiss., im Unterschied zur Prosa, i. allg. Texte in vers-, rhythmus- und klanggebundener Sprache, deren Struktur und Stil von sprachlichen (Klangformen; Reime; Satzfolgen u.a.) wie auch außersprachlichen Faktoren (Musik; Umfang; Gleichbau; Szenerie u.a. Modifikationen, sog. constraints) bestimmt sind. Althebr. Begriffe sind nicht überliefert, obwohl die P. einen beträchtlichen An…


(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …