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Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…

Magdeburg, Joachim

(235 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (1525, Gardelegen, Altmark – c. 1587) received his bachelor's degree from Wittenberg in 1546, then served as rector in Schöningen until 1547, when he was appointed pastor in Dannenberg. Having served from 1549 to 1551 in Salzwedel, he resigned voluntarily. He served as deacon in Hamburg (Sankt Petri) from 1552 to 1558; after being removed, he served as pastor in Oßmannstedt (Thuringia), where he was removed in 1562. In 1563 he resided in Eisleben. In 1564 he was appointed pastor i…

Zillertal Emigrants

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The Zillertal Emigrants were the last population group in modern European history to be banished for religious reasons. The Zillertal, which had been part of Tyrol since 1816, had been spared the expulsion of the Salzburg Emigrants in 1731/1732, but in 1826 there was open resistance to the Roman Catholic Church on the part of lay Christians. When attempts at conversion failed, the 1836 election of a new archbishop of Salzburg led – under legally dubious circumstances – to the use …

Tschernembl, Georg Erasmus

(170 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 26, 1567, Schloss Schwertberg – Nov 18, 1626, Geneva). After studies in Altdorf and an educational tour of western Europe, he worked in the diplomatic service of the Upper Austrian estates, including stays in Graz and Prague. On the basis of a highly charged theory of a federation of the estates based on Calvinistic theology and hostility to the monarchy ( Consultationes, 1624), he included the Bohemian confederation (president of the Bohemian war council 1619/1620) in his planned federation, which also included the Protestant Union (16…

Ungleich, Lucas

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Unglerus; 1526, Hermannstadt [Sibiu] – Nov 21, 1600, Birthälm, Transylvania [Biertan, Romania]). After studying in Wittenberg, he received his M.A. in 1550 and was appointed lecturer at the Hermannstadt Gymnasium. In 1561 he was a member of a delegation sent to several German universities to confirm the orthodox eucharistic doctrine of the Transylvanian Lutherans. In 1565 he was appointed pastor in Kelling (Calnic), in 1567 in Berthälm. On May 6, 1572, Ungleich received the most …


(281 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | de Groot, Aart
[German Version] 1. Johann (Crellius; Jul 26, 1590, Hellmitzheim, Franconia – Jun 11, 1633, Rákow, Poland) attended school in Nuremberg from 1600 to 1603, then until 1605 in Stolberg in the Harz mountains; in Nov 1607 he began his studies at Altdorf, where he served as alumni superintendent. There he came in contact with the crypto-Socinians around the physician E. Soner. In Dec 1612 he fled to Rákow, where he became professor of Greek and served as rector from 1616 to 16…

Irenäus, Christoph

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Summer 1522, Świdnica [Schweidnitz], Poland – c. 1595, Buchenbach, Germany). Irenäus studied in Wittenberg in 1544 and became the head of a school in Bernburg in 1545, then in Aschersleben in 1548. On Feb 17, 1549, he received his M.A. in Wittenberg. After his ordination in Wittenberg (1552), he became deacon in 1553, in 1559 archdeacon in Aschersleben, in 1562 pastor in Eisleben, in 1566 court chaplain to Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony-Weimar in Coburg and Weimar, in 1570 visitat…

Neumann, Kaspar

(200 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1648, Breslau [today Wroclaw] – Jan 27, 1715, Breslau). Neumann began his studies in Jena in 1667 and received his M.A. in 1670. In 1673 he became the traveling companion of Prince Christian of Saxe-Gotha. In 1676 he was appointed court chaplain in Altenburg; in 1678 he was made deacon and in 1689 pastor of Sankt Maria Magdalena in Breslau and appointed to professorial positions at both municipal Gymnasiums. In 1697 he was appointed pastor primarius of Sankt Elisabeth and made inspector of churches and schools. The publication of sermons linking c…

Heßhus, Tilemann

(268 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Hesshusius, Heshusen, Hesshusen; Nov 3,1527, Niederwesel – Sep 25, 1588, Helmstedt) began his studies in 1546/47, received the M.A. in Wittenberg (1550), became pastor primarius in Goslar (1553), professor and pastor in Rostock (1556), professor and general superintendent in Heidelberg (1557), in Bremen (1559), superintendent in Magdeburg (1560), pastor primarius in Goslar (1553), professor and pastor in Rostock (1556), professor and general superintendent in Heidelberg (1557), i…

Rosinus, Bartholomäus

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (c. 1520 Pößneck, Thuringia – Dec 17, 1585, Regensburg) began his studies at Wittenberg in 1536, receiving his M.A. in 1544. He taught in Gotha, becoming rector in 1544. In 1551 he became a deacon in Eisenach and in 1559 was appointed superintendent in Weimar. In 1562 he was dismissed and then reappointed in 1567, as a result of ¶ religio-political shifts in Ernestine Thuringia. In 1563 he was the Schönburg-Waldenburg superintendent in Glauchau. He was a co-author and signatory of the Gnesio-Lutheran Reuss-Schönburg Confession in 1567. In …

Crell, Paul

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; Feb 2, 1531, Eisleben – May 24/27, 1579, Meißen) began studies in Wittenberg in November 1548, received the M.A. on Feb 22, 1552, ordained on Sep 29, 1556, was preacher in the palace chapel in Wittenberg, received the Dr.Theol. on Dec 7, 1559, ¶ became professor of theology in Wittenberg in January 1560 and rector of the University in the summer of 1563, transferred to the consistory of Meißen on Jun 20, 1569, professor at Wittenberg once again from June 1574 to spring 1577, and transferred back …

Hülsemann, Johann

(203 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 26, 1602, Esens, East Friesland – Jun 11, 1661, Leipzig). After attending school in Norden, Stade, and Hannover, Hülsemann studied at Rostock (1619), Wittenberg (1621), Leipzig (1627), and Marburg (1627). He also visited Holland and France. In 1692, after receiving his doctorate, he became a professor at Wittenberg, where he married the widow of F. Balduin (1630). He participated in the Colloquy of Thorn in 1645 as moderator of the theologians adhering to the Augsburg Confess…

Schaitberger, Joseph

(151 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 19, 1658, Haus Niederplaik/Dürrnberg near Hallein, Saltzkammergut – Oct 2, 1733, Nuremberg), schoolmaster and miner. Schaitberger played a leading part in the resistance to the Counter-Reformation in the archbishopric of Salzburg. He was imprisoned for heresy in 1685 and expelled in the winter of 1685/1686, having to leave his children behind. Working in Nuremberg as a manual laborer, he was granted accommodations as a pensioner in the former Carthusian monastery by the city …

Crell, Nikolaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; 1552, Leipzig – Oct 9, 1601, Dresden) attended school in Grimma 1568–1571, studied in Leipzig 1571–1576, received the M.A. on Jan 25, 1576, the Baccalaureus iurium on Jun 17, 1576, traveled to France in 1577, and may have received the Dr.iur. in Valence. He established contact with François Hotman in Geneva, married Margarete Grieben from Leipzig on Aug 4, 1577, lectured in Leipzig (?), and became counselor to the court in Dresden on Feb …

Ernest the Pious

(413 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (duke of Saxony-Gotha and Altenburg; Dec 25, 1601, Weimar – Mar 26, 1675, Gotha). As ruler, he advanced the 17th-century Lutheran reform movement. The son of Duke Johann of Saxony-Weimar and Dorothea Maria of Anhalt-Köthen, Ernest was shaped by the strict religious tradition of the Ernestine Wettines. His teachers included W. Ratke, with whom he …

Fischer, Christoph

(191 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1518, Joachimsthal [Jáchymov] – Sep 11, 1598, Celle). Christoph Fischer (or Vischer) began his studies at Wittenberg in 1537, and received his baccalaureate in 1540 and his M.A. in 1543. In 1544, he was appointed preacher and provost in Jüterbog. Forced to flee in 1547, he became pastor in Benesov, Bohemia. In October 1552, he was called to Schmalkalden as pastor of the collegiate church and superintendent. In 1555, he was appointed general ¶ superintendent, in November 1571 superintendent in Meiningen, in 1574 adjunct to the general superintende…

Vockerodt, Gottfried

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1665, Mühlhausen, Thuringia – Oct 10, 1727, Gotha) began his studies at Jena in 1683, receiving his M.A. in 1685; in 1689 he received calls to both Mühlhausen and Halle. He served as deputy rector in Halle, where he began teaching in 1693. From 1694 to 1727 he served as rector of the Gymnasium in Gotha. His call to Gotha may have involved strategic considerations. There Vockerodt, a highly cultivated educator, played a key role in the early history of the Pietist movement…


(327 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] This movement, whose adherents were already called Gnesio-Lutherans during its heyday, originated as a consequence of the Interim of 1548 because of differences in political ethics among the Wittenberg theologians (Resistance, Right of). Its proponents (including N. v. Amsdorf, M.Flacius, N.Gallus, and J.Westphal), among them also laypersons, some students of P.Melanchthon, appealed in support of their positions in anthropology (doctrine of original sin), eucharistic theology, ecc…

Judex (Richter), Matthäus

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1528, Dippoldiswalde – May 16, 1564, Wismar). Judex attended school in Dresden and Magdeburg, began his studies of law and theology in Wittenberg in 1546, received the M.A. in 1549 and in the same year became the co-rector of the Gymnasium in the old city of Magdeburg, in 1554 deacon at St. Ulrich with J. Wigand. In April 1560, he was appointed professor in Jena, and was dismissed on Oct 1, 1561 because of his public criticism of the Lutheran leadership's willingness to c…
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