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Achaemenids

(589 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀχαιμενίδαι; Achaimenídai, in Old Persian Hakhāmanišiya). [German version] [1] Persian clan Persian clan (φρήτρη; phrḗtrē) belonging to the Pasargadae tribe (Hdt. 1,125). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Persian dynasty Persian dynasty that ruled in Persia (Achaemenid empire) from the time of Darius I [1]. Various contradicting genealogies of the Achaemenid family line have been passed down. According to the cylinder inscription of Cyrus II [2], he was the great-grandson of Teisp…

Aryandes

(66 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρυάνδης; Aryándēs). Satrap of Egypt under Cambyses II and Darius I, suppressed an uprising in Libya (Hdt. 4.200-203). Executed by Darius for high treason, because he is supposed to have tried to imitate royal coins ( Dareikos), minting high-value silver coins (Hdt. 4,166); to date not archaeologically attested. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography J. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, 93f.

Artabazanes

(69 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρταβαζάνης; Artabazánēs). Son of Darius I and a daughter of Gobryas, half-brother of Xerxes, who contested his succession to the throne (Hdt. 7.2-3); a Xerxes inscription possibly relates to this [1. 150]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography 1 R. G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953. J. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, 109-110 H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Yaunā en Persai, 1980, 69-75 D.M. Lewis, Sparta and Persia, 1977, 15.

Darius

(855 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ancient Persian Dārayava(h)uš, ‘Guardian of Good’, Greek Δαρεῖος < Δαρειαῖος; Dareîos < Dareiaîos). The name of various Persian kings and princes [3]. D., the Mede (Dan. 9) cannot be identified historically. [German version] [1] D. I. Son of Hystaspes Son of  Hystaspes, grandson of  Arsames [1], from the Achaemenid family ( Achaemenids), became king (522 BC) [1], after banding together with six accomplices from the country's most influential families and overthrowing the usurper  Gaumata. During the first year of his reign, D. had …

Hydarnes

(319 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Old Persian Vidr̥na, Elamite Miturna, Mitarna). Common personal name which appears in the Persepolis tablets for several persons of different social class. Ctesias mentions passim marriages between Hydarnids and the royal family. Important bearers of the name are the following: [German version] [1] Son of Bagabigna H., son of Bagabigna, helper of Darius [1] [2. DB 4.84] against (Pseudo) Bardiya [2] ( Gaumāta), who defeated the rebellious Medes in 522 BC [2. DB 2.19, 21]; according to Hdt. 3,70, he was a co-conspirator, brought into the plo…

Bardiya

(198 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Elamite Pirtiya; Akkadian Barzija; Greek Σμέρδις, Μάρδος; Smérdis, Márdos, Aesch. Pers. 774). [German version] [1] Younger son of  Cyrus II Younger son of  Cyrus II (and Cassandane), according to the  Bisutun inscription full brother of  Cambyses II [3. 117]; in Ctesias Pers. 12,10,29 Tanyoxarkes, in Xen. Cyr. 8,7,11 Tanaoxares, whom Cyrus supposedly appointed as satrap of Media, Armenia and Cadusia, murdered on orders of Cambyses either before [3. 117.29f.] or during (Hdt. 3,10) his Egyptian military campaign (52…

Anshan

(103 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Anzan). Name of a region of Elam and its main city (Tall-i Malyān, 36 km north-west of Shiraz), situated in western Fars (Persis); mentioned from the late 3rd millennium in Akkadian and Sumerian, and later Elamite, texts. The kings of Elam called themselves rulers of Anshan and Susa. On the Cyrus Cylinder (539 BC),  Cyrus II calls his ancestors kings of Anshan. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography E. Carter, Bridging the Gap Between the Elamites and the Persians in South Eastern Khuzistan, in: Achaemenid History 8, 1994, 65-95 E. C…

Artembares

(83 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρτεμβάρης; Artembárēs). [German version] [1] Distinguished Median Distinguished Median, whose son was beaten in play by the young Cyrus and who complained about it to Astyages (Hdt. 1,114-116). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Artayctes Grandfather of Artayctes (Hdt. 9,122). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [3] Cavalry leader in Aeschylus's Persians Name of a cavalry leader in Aesch. Pers. 29 and 302. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bi…

Agra

(27 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6.3 and 6.4, a city in the western part of Susiana on the Tigris. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)

Artarius

(69 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Old Pers. Ṛtāraiva-, according to Ctesias (FGrH 688 F 14. 41-2) son of Xerxes, half-brother of Artaxerxes I and satrap of Babylon. He appears (as Artareme), together with his son Menostanes, in Babylonian cuneiform texts of the time of Artaxerxes I. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography J. M. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, no. 152 M. W. Stolper, Entrepreneurs and Empire, 1985, 90-92.

Astyages

(182 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀστυάγης; Astyágēs, Akkadian Is̆tumegu). Last king of the Medes, who, according to Hdt. 1.130 reigned for 35 years. He is said to have tried in vain to kill Cyrus, the son of his daughter Mandane and the Persian Cambyses by exposing him (Hdt. 1.108). According to Hdt. 1.123-129 and Babylonian chronicle reports Cyrus II rose against A. (550 BC), perhaps reflected in the Harpagus legend in Hdt. Cyrus II's victory and the conquest of Ecbatana signified the end of the Median kingdom. …

Arbaces

(171 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρβάκης; Arbákēs). [German version] [1] King of the Medians According to Ctesias' list of Median kings (Diod. Sic. 2,32-34), a king of the Medes who defeated the effeminate Assyrian king Sardanapal (Assurbanipal) with the help of the Babylonian Belesys and destroyed Niniveh in 625 BC (Diod. Sic. 2,24-28; Ath. 12,528f-529c). Ctesias' fanciful report is in stark contrast to the reliable account given in Babylonian cuneiform documents. In an inscription by Sargon II of Assyria (713 BC), an Arbaku is named …

Atossa

(200 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀτόσσα; Atóssa, Ancient Persian * Utauthā). [German version] [1] Daughter of Cyrus II Daughter of Cyrus II, married in succession to her brothers Cambyses and Bardiya [1], then Darius [1] I (Hdt. 3,88). Mother of four of Darius' sons, including  Masistes and  Xerxes. Her name is only documented in Greek sources. Neither Aesch. Pers. (there not called by name, but only designated as the king's mother) nor Hdt. 7,2-3 prove that she outlived Darius. When her son Xerxes was named successor to the throne is unce…

Gaumata

(239 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian Gōmāta; Elamitic Kammadda; Akkadian Gumātu). A magus ( Magi) [3. DB 39], who seized power after Cambyses had his brother  Bardiya [1] assassinated, on Cambyses' absence on campaign in Egypt. To justify his usurpation he claimed to be Bardiya. After Cambyses' death  Darius [1] I. and six noble Persians (Aspathines,  Hydarnes,  Intaphernes,  Gobryas,  Megabyzus, and  Otanes) brought the rule of G./Bardiya to an end and killed him (522 BC). A detailed description is in the  Bi…

Artaynte

(90 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρταΰντη; Artaýntē). Daughter of  Masistes, brother of Xerxes I, married to the latter's son Darius. A fanciful account (Hdt. 9.108-113) tells how Xerxes fell in love with his daughter-in-law and his wife Amestris took revenge on the mother of the girl, leading to a revolt by Masistes. The account has literary parallels in Est and Mt 14.1-12. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography J. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, 106 H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Exit Atossa, in: A. Cameron, A. Kuhrt (ed.), Images…

Artaxerxes

(721 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρταξέσσης, Ἀρταξέρξης; Artaxéssēs, Artaxérxēs; Old Persian Artaḫšaça). Name of several Achaemenid rulers. [German version] [1] A. I. Son of Xerxes Μακρόχειρ ( Makrócheir)/ Longimanus (465-424/3 BC), son of Xerxes and Amastris; ascended the throne in August 465 BC after the assassination of his father (Diod. Sic. 11.69.2-6) [1 ch.14]. A. succeeded in suppressing the Egyptian revolt supported by Athens (460-454 BC). He took in the fugitive Themistocles. In Asia Minor the Persians suffered losses which may have led to …

Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Deioces

(174 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Δηιόκης; Dēiókēs). According to Hdt. 1, the first ruler of the  Medes, said to have ruled for 53 years; elected by the Medes as their ruler, he is said to have had a fortress built ( Ecbatana), surrounded himself with a bodyguard and introduced a court ceremonial designed to accustom his subjects to regard their ruler as a higher being. Herodotus' account combines contemporary elements of Achaemenid court protocol with Greek ideas on the ways of a tyrant (Hdt. 1, 96-101; [2]). The Greek personal name D. corresponds to the name Daiakku mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources…

Bessus

(72 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Satrap of Bactria, Darius III's general at the battle of  Gaugamela. Shortly afterwards he killed Darius, assumed the name Artaxerxes and tried to hold the eastern part of the Persian Empire against  Alexander [4] the Great.  Spitamenes i.a. betrayed him; he was condemned to death in Ecbatana for high treason (Arr. Anab., Curt. passim). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography F. Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria, 1989.  

Boges

(54 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Persian noble who defended Eïon on the Strymon against  Cimon in 476/5 BC (Hdt. 7,107). He rejected Cimon's offer of free passage and committed suicide, with all of his household, when the fortress had to surrender. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire perse, 1996, 364.  
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