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Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Bessus

(72 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Satrap of Bactria, Darius III's general at the battle of  Gaugamela. Shortly afterwards he killed Darius, assumed the name Artaxerxes and tried to hold the eastern part of the Persian Empire against  Alexander [4] the Great.  Spitamenes i.a. betrayed him; he was condemned to death in Ecbatana for high treason (Arr. Anab., Curt. passim). …

Boges

(54 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Persian noble who defended Eïon on the Strymon against  Cimon in 476/5 BC (Hdt. 7,107). He rejected Cimon's offer of free passage and committed suicide, with all of his household, when the fortress had to surrender. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography P. Briant, Histoire de l…

Arachosia

(177 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀραχωσία; Arachōsía, Old Persian Harauvatis̆). Achaemenid, then Seleucid,  satrapy in eastern Iran/western Afghanistan; in the mid 3rd cent. BC it belonged to India. First mentioned in the Behistun inscription (

Aginis

(67 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Village (κώμη; kṓmē) in the Susiana mentioned by Alexander's fleet commander Nearchus at the conclusion of his voyage from the Indus to Babylonia (Arr. Ind. 42,4). Aginis lay between the mouth of the Tigris and Pasitigris (today Karun); Strab. 15,3,5 also describes its location but without calling it by name. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography F. C. Andreas, s. v. A., RE 1, 810-816.

Belesys

(92 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Babylon. Bēlšunu). Sub-governor of Babylon from 421 at least until 414 BC; Satrap of Syria at least between 407 and 401, where he owned large estates and a palace (Xen. An. 1,4,10). Being appointed as governor was unusual for a Babylonian and was probably owing to his support of Darius II in his battle for the throne. B.'s business documents written in Babylonian language (dated 424-400 BC) were found in  Babylon. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. W. Stolper, The Kasr Archive, in: Achaemenid History 4, 1990, 195-205.

Intaphernes

(96 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian Vindafarna, Elamite Mindaparna). Supporter of Darius I in the conspiracy against (Pseudo-)Bardiya [2] ( Gaumata) [1. DB 3.84] in 522 BC. He crushed the second Babylonian rebellion [1. DB 83-91]. Herodotus (3,118-119) tells of an alleged uprising of I. for which his entire family was exterminated; only the brother of his wife was spared at her pleading (a parallel to Sophocles'

Aluaka

(80 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀλουάκα, Ἀλούακα; Alouáka, Aloúaka). According to Ptol. 6,2,10, a place in Media. If the Turkish region of Albâq is linked to the ancient name, A. was situated in the upper region of the Great Zab (Lycus). Then A. could be the same place as the Symbace mentioned by Str. 11,13,2 (Albake -- Albâq -- Aluaka), that according to Strabo was situated on the border between Armenia Maior and Media  Atropatene.…

Artabazus

(267 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρτάβαζος; Artábazos). Old Pers. Rtavazdah, Elamite Irdumasda. [German version] …

Artystone

(81 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρτυστόνη; Artystóne, Elamite Irtašduna). Daughter of Cyrus II, favourite wife of Darius I, mother of  Arsames and  Gobryas. Darius had a golden statue made of her (Hdt. 7.69). She owned extensive property in Persis (Kukkannakan, Randu), which she administered herself. Elamite administrative documents from Persepolis are sealed with her seal; A. is also mentioned there together with her son Arsames.…

Abrocomas

(137 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀβροκόμης, Ἀβροκόμας; Abrokómēs, Abrokómas). [German version] [1] Son of Darius I and Phratagune Son of Darius I and Phratagune, fell during the battle of Thermopylae (Hdt. 7,224) [1]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-W…

Ariaeus

(114 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀριαῖος; Ariaîos). Friend and troop commander of  Cyrus the younger at Cunaxa (Xen. An. 1,7,5; 9,31; 10,1; Oec. 4,18 f.; Plut. Artax. 11), who was offered the Persian crown by the Greeks after the death of Cyrus; A. declined (Xen. An. 2,2,1). He changed to  Tissaphernes' side shortly after the Greek commanders were taken prisoner and possibly aided him in his conspiracy against Artaxerxes II (Xen. An. 2,5,35). In 395 BC, A. was the satrap of Phrygia and involved in Tissaphernes' murder (Diod. Sic. 14,80,6-8; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,16,1; Hell. Oxy. 13,19,39). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography S. Hirsch, The Friendship of the Barbarians, 1985 A. S. Shahbazi, s. v. Ariaeus, EncIr 2, 405-406.

Artaphernes

(181 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρταφέρνης, Ἀρταφρένης; Artaphérnēs, Artaphrénēs, Old Pers. Rtafarnah, Elamite Irdaparna). [German version] [1] Conspirator in Aeschylus's Persians In Aesch. Pers. 776f. one of the conspirators who killed  Bardiya. Probably the same as Intaphernes (Vindafarnah) in Hdt. 3.70. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) …

Abradatas

(73 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀβραδάτης; Abradátēs). Fictitious king of Susa, protagonist in a novella in Xen. Cyr. (5,1,2; 6,1,45-52; 6,3,35-36; 6,4,2-10; 7,1,29-32; 7,3,2-14). His beautiful wife, Pantheia, was taken prisoner by Cyrus, treated very well and convinced A. to join Cyrus. A. fell in the battle against the Lydians. Pantheia committed suicide on his grave. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography C. J. Brunner, s. v. A., Enclr 1, 228 D. Gera, Xenophon's Cyropaedia, 1993, 221-245.

Dataphernes

(70 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian * Datafarnah-). Sogdian who, together with  Spitamenes, handed  Bessus over to Alexander the Great (329 BC); took part in the uprising against Alexander until the  Dahae handed him over to Alexander as a prisoner (328/7 BC). Sources: Arr. Anab. 4,1,5; 4,17,7; Curt. 7,5,21; 8,3,1-16.…

Artabanus

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀρτάβ/πανος, Ἀρταπάνης; Artáb/panos, Artapánēs, Old Pers. Rtabānuš, Elamite Irdabanuš). [German version] [1] Brother of Darius I and uncle of Xerxes Brother of Darius I and uncle of Xerxes, who warned Darius and Xerxes against the campaigns against the Scythians (Hdt. 4.83) and against Greece (7.10-18) respectively [1]. Xerxes sent him back from Abydus on the Dardanelles and commissioned him with the regency for the duration of the war (Hdt. 7,46-53). Perhaps aroun…

Achaemenes

(252 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀχαιμένης; Achaiménēs, Hakhāmanis̆ in Old Persian). [German version] [1] Founder of the Persian royal house Founder and eponymous hero of the Persian royal house (Hdt. 7,11), described by Darius I as the family's forefather [1. 116]; his family named itself Hakhāmanis̆iya or  Achaemenids after him [1. DB I. 3-8; 2. 43-45]. In Greek mythology, Perseus or Aegeus was the father of A. (Pl. Alc. 1, 120e; Nic. Dam. FGrH 90 F 6). According to Ael. Hist. 12,21,…

Ariaramnes

(104 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀριαράμνης; Ariarámnēs, Old Persian Ariyāramna). Persian king, son of Teispes and grandson of  Achaemenes; Darius I calls him his great-grandfather in the Behistun inscription [1. 116 DB I 5]. The validity of an inscription found in Hamadan, in which A. calls himself ‘Great King’ and ‘King of kings’ [1. 116 AmH], is disputed; if it is a forgery, it probably dates from the time of Artaxerxes II.  Achaemenids;  Darius I;  Teispes Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (U…
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