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Tamuda

(61 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Small Mauretanian rural town (3rd to 1st cents. BC) at Tétouan (in Morocco) near the coast (of the Mare Ibericum), with strong Carthaginian influences (forms of burial, coin minting). Earliest archaeological evidence from the 6th cent. BC; in the Roman Imperial period the site of a military camp. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography M. Ponsich, s. v. T., DCPP, 436.

Rachgoun

(90 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A small island at the mouth of the Wādī Tafna (Latin Siga) in western Algeria, R. is the site of the extensive necropolis of the Mauretanian Punic city of Siga and, on the southern side, of a small Punic merchant settlement dating to the 7th-5th century BC; according to the finds, there were particularly close links with Phoenician factories on the southern coast of Spain. Syphax Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Lancel, É. Lipiński, s. v. R., DCPP, 369  G. Vuillemot, Reconnaissances aux échelles puniques d'Oranie, 1965.

Stele

(787 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt Stelae are standing stone slabs with reliefs or inscriptions on one or more sides; in Egypt wooden stelae also survive. In early Mesopotamia their shape can be natural, elsewhere they usually have rounded tops, less often squared tops. From the end of the 4th millennium BC, funeral stelae were used in Egypt at or in tombs (or cenotaphs) as cult places. In the 1st millennium, funeral stelae (mostly wooden) were also placed in the burial chamber: they bear images (…

Weapons

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…

Morro de Mezquitilla

(127 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician settlement of the early 8th cent. BC, founded on the site of a Copper Age settlement on a height overlooking the mouth of the Río Algarrobo, 6 km east of Vélez-Málaga (southern Spain). Its associated necropolises were probably partly on the opposite (western) bank of the river, where a 7th-cent. BC chamber tomb, significant from an architectural point of view, is preserved, along with evidence of others (Trayamar). Necropolis Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography H.G. Niemeyer, H. Schubart, Trayamar. Die phönizischen Kammergräber und die N…

Pavimentum

(813 words)

Author(s): Panayides, Aliki Maria (Berne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Introduction Although only a small part of the pavimenta (floor coverings) in ancient buildings was decorated, scholars have paid a great deal of attention to them, esp. to those decorated with mosaics (other floor coverings generally only appear in scholarly literature in relation to the identification of their ancient terminology). In Pompeii only 2.5% of floors were decorated with mosaics, a further 7% were decorated with cement floors and the rest of the buildings are floored with undecorated stone or cement pavimenta or even stamped earth. Pavimenta were alw…

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in the lagoon 8 km to the north of Marsala, modern Mozia on San Pantaleo. With Solus and Panormus, M. was the last fortress held by the Phoenicians in their retreat from the Greeks in western Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,6; own coins inscribed in Greek and Phoenician in the 5th and 4th cents. BC: HN 157f.) and was conquered and destroyed by Dionys…

Cannita, Pizzo

(37 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Phoenician-Punic settlement, c. 10 km east of Palermo, known from the chance finds of two anthropoid sarcophagi (in 1695 and 1725), and from surface finds. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) Bibliography DCPP, s.v. C., 88.

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira), Latin Gades, modern Cádiz). The date of its foundation is linked to the foundations of Utica and Carthage; according to literary sources, it is estimated for c. 1100 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,2; Iust. 44,5,2; Mela 3,46; Plin. HN 16,216; cf. [3. 5-12;…

Ivory carvings

(904 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Middle East and Phoenicia Ivory, i.e. tusks of the boar, the hippopotamus and particularly the (African as well as Asian)  elephant, was extremely popular from the Neolithic period onwards as a material in ‘craftwork’. In the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age, the important workshops of the Syrian-Phoenician coastal towns and also of Egypt developed styles that were recognizably their own. Ivory carvings (IC) were widespread through intensive trade and almost always formed part of t…

Carthage

(5,523 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Kopka, Alexandra (Freiburg i. Br. RWG)
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] I. Archaeological Excavations (CT) Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] A. From the beginnings to the settling of the White Fathers in 1875 (CT) Legends about the untold riches of the Punic metropolis have always fascinated treasure hunters, starting with Scipio's soldiers, who ransacked and razed the city in 146 BC, and with Pompey's legionnaires, who, two generations later, after the victory against the Numidian king Hiarbas near Utica (83 BC), scoured the nearby d…

Opus Africanum

(249 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] Common technical term in the archaeological study of construction techniques describing a masonry technique, in which pillars made of ashlar or orthostatic blocks alternate with spaces infilled with mud brick or rubble, similar in principle to timber framing. It was common especially in Punic North Africa, Sardinia and the parts of Sicily ruled by Carthage or under its influence (e.g. Motya, Soluntum, Selinuntum, Heraclea [9] Minoa) and also spread as far as Etruria (Tarquinia) an…

Abdera

(343 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] City on Cape Bouloustra This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄβδηρα; Ábdēra). City on Cape Bouloustra, in the Aegean, 16 km north-east of the mouth of the Nestus; founded and fortified in 656 BC by Ionian  Clazomenae; destroyed by Thracians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC. Archaeologically attested archaic graves. From 545 BC, a second fou…

Classical Archaeology

(20,015 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) | Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG)
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) A peculiarity of the discipline is the absence of a generally accepted concept of Classical Archeology (CA), which in a good third of German-speaking universities is simply called Archaeology, either by way of obvious simplification or by way of conscious extension of the subject-matter, thereby sacrificing the aspect and claim of the ‘Classical’. One of its most prominent research bodies, the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut [20; 55; 89], was founded in Rome in 1829 as the Istituto di corrispond…

Necropoleis

(7,045 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Introduction The Greek word νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, ‘city of the dead’, is attested in Antiquity only in Strabo (17,1,10,14) as the name of a suburb of Alexandria [1] (Necropolis). Modern scholarship transfers the term necropolis to cemeteries of various cultures and time periods. General definitions as to shape and size do not exist. In this article, necropolis refers only to sites of a certain size and usually lying outside the settlements themselves. The size of a necropolis, the …

Mauretania

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μαυρουσία/ Maurousía). [German version] I. Name In the second century BC, M. comprised approximately the area of Morocco and western Algeria and was probably called by its Greek name of Maurusia (cf. Coelius Antipater, HRR 1,175 fr. 55). The formation of names in M. (Ἑρπεδιτανοί/ Herpeditanoí), which follows the same pattern as those found in Iberia (e.g. Turdetani, Cassetani), and the existence of the Nektíbēres (Νεκτίβηρες) in M. speak for the fact that Libyans and Iberians are related. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) [German version] II. Geography In geological terms, M. is characteri…

Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…

Sabratha

(497 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Colonization | Limes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Neo-Punic Ṣbrt[]n). [German version] I. History One of the three Phoenician cities of African Tripolis, 65 km west of Tripoli, Libya (Ps.-Scyl. 110 and Str. 17,3,18: Ἀβρότονον/ Abrótonon (?); Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀβρότονον (?); Plin. HN 5,25; 35: Sabrata; 27: Habrotonum; Sil. Pun. 3,256: S.; Ptol. 4,3,12: Σάβραθα/ Sábratha; Stadiasmus maris magni 99 f.: Σαράθρα/ Saráthra or Ἀλάθρα/ Aláthra; It. Ant. 61,3: Sabrata colonia; Solin. 27,8 and Tab. Peut. 7,2: Sabrat…

Pins

(3,978 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Pins and needles (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, Latin acus) were put to a variety of uses in the ancient household: they were used for hair, garments and sewing. They were also a utensil, for example, in the work of doctors (Surgical instruments), sailmakers etc. Tattoos were also done using special needles. The shape of the pin, long and thin with one sharp end, has not changed since prehistoric times. In sewing needles, the head is generally unadorned and flat; …

Cistern

(334 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] I. General Cisterns as storage for rain water or as reservoirs for spring and well water were customary and necessary for a regulated and sufficient  water supply in the climatically unfavourable regions of the southern and eastern Mediterranean, both as small systems for individual houses and farms and as communal systems for settlements. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) [German version] II. Ancient Orient s.  Water supply I. D. Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] III. Phoenician-Punic region Systems for securing the water supply by collecting …
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