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Mikythos

(108 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Μίκυθος). Sohn des Choiros, aus dem Hause des Tyrannen Anaxilaos [1] von Rhegion, war nach dessen Tod um 476 v.Chr. für dessen minderjährige Söhne neun Jahre Statthalter (ἐπίτροπος) von Rhegion (Hdt. 7, 170; Iust. 4,2,5; Diod. 11,48ff.). M. leistete den Tarentinern unter großen Verlusten Waffenhilfe gegen die iapygischen Stämme. Wahrscheinlich auf Intervention des Hieron [1] von Syrakus übergab er die Herrschaft den Söhnen des Anaxilaos und ging nach Tegea in Arkadien. Von dort …

Laarchus

(114 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Λάαρχος; Láarchos; Hdt.: Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Battus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. fought together with unnamed brothers over their succession against their brother Arcesilaus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. founded Barce, about 100 km to the west. At the same time he incited the Libyan tribes to rebel against Cyrene. He murdered Arcesilaus around 560/550 BC after the lat ter's defeat at Leucon in Libya and was probably murdered by Arcesilaus's wife Eryxo while attempting to become his successor (Hdt. 4,160). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei …

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Tyrannicide

(313 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (τυραννοκτονία/ tyrannoktonía; Latin tyrannicidium). Term coined in Hellenistic and Roman rhetoric, historiography and law (initially Greek, Diod. Sic. 16,14,1, Latin Sen. Controv. 4,7). The term goes back to the public veneration of the tyrannicides in Athens (Harmodius [1], Aristogiton [1]). Their deed quickly became a democratic topos (Thuc. 1,20; 6,53,3-6,54,1). Injustice, lawlessness and despotism (Pl. Plt. 291e; Pl. Resp. 9,571-586) justified tyrannicide (Pl. Prt. 322d) and the…

Battiads

(161 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Βαττιάδαι; Battiádai). Designation for the dynasty of Cyrene that lasted for eight generations; four kings by the name of  Battus alternated with four others by the name of  Arcesilaus (Hdt. 4,159). The eponym is Battus I (since c. 630 in Cyrene). The king's privileges mentioned by Herodotus (4,161) are unusual. Since  Arcesilaus II ( c. 560), we find the typical aristocratic divisions in Cyrene which led to tyrannis in Greek cities of that time. The successors either tried to dominate or pushed for agreement. In order to stay in power, the king…

Telestes

(160 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Τελέστης; Teléstēs). [German version] [1] Last king of Corinth According to a list of kings in Diod. 7,9,2-5, T. was the last king of Corinth. The name's apt meaning ( télos = 'end') casts doubt on his historicity. His murder was, according to tradition, closely followed by the Bacchiadae (Paus. 2,4,4). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 47; 55. [German version] [2] From Selinus, dithyramb poet, c. 400 BC Dithyrambic poet from Selinus [4]. The Marmor Parium (65) mentions a victory in Athens in 402/401 BC. Titles of his works are Argo (with cri…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Phalaris

(299 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φάλαρις; Phálaris). Tyrant of Acragas, son of Leodamas of Rhodes; ruled the city, which was founded c. 580 BC, from c. 570-555 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 5,10, 1310b 28) counts him among those tyrants who achieved power by virtue of their high official status ( ek tōn timôn). Elsewhere (Aristot. Rh. 2,20,1393b 5-8), Aristotle cites a fable of Stesichorus, according to which P. first held the office of a strategos with dictatorial powers ( stratēgós autokrátōr). According to Polyaenus, Strat. 5,1,1, on the other hand, P. seized power while treasurer during the…

Tyndarion

(78 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τυνδάριον; Tyndárion). Tyrant of Tauromenium, who together with other Sicilian Greeks asked Pyrrhus [3] to intervene against the power ambitions of the Carthaginians on the island in 279 BC. In 278 he readily received Pyrrhus when he landed at Tauromenium and was, as the latter's ally, confirmed in his power (Diod. 22,2,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 22; Paus. 1,12,5;  Just. Epit. 18,2,11). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, vol. 1, 1967, 459; 461; 732.

Micythus

(130 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Μίκυθος; Míkythos). Son of Chirus, from the house of the tyrant Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium. For nine years after Anaxilaus' death around 476 BC he was governor (ἐπίτροπος; epítropos) of Rhegium for his sons who were not legally of age (Hdt. 7, 170; Iust. 4,2,5; Diod. 11,48ff.). M. helped the people of Tarentum against the tribes of the Iapyges but suffered huge losses to his army. Probably after an intervention of Hieron [1] of Syracuse he handed over control to Anaxilaus' sons and went to Tegea in Arcadia. F…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Periander

(574 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Περίανδρος/ Períandros, Lat. Periander). Around 655/627 BC, P. succeeded his father  Cypselus [2] as tyrant of Corinth. According to the summary records from antiquity, he ruled for about 40 years (Aristot. Pol. 5,12,1315b 25).  His wife was Melissa, the daughter of Procles, the tyrant of Epidauros; apart from a daughter, he had with her the sons Cypselus, who was mentally retarded, and Lycophron [1]. The other sons, Evagoras, Gorgus, and Nicolaus, he had with concubines (Hdt. 3,5…

Iophon

(262 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἰοφῶν; Iophôn) [German version] [1] Son of Peisistratus from his second marriage Son of  Peisistratus from his second marriage to the Argive Timonassa, the daughter of Gorgilus and widow of the  Cypselid Archinus of Ambracia. In contrast to his brother  Hegesistratus [1], only I.'s name has survived ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,3; Plut. Cato maior 24,8; Hdt. 5,94f.). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography L. de Libero, Die Archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 88 Traill, PAA 537360. [German version] [2] Athenian tragedian, 5th cent. BC Athenian tragedian (TrGF I 22), a son of  Sophocl…

Pheretima

(173 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φερετίμα; Pheretíma). Queen of Cyrene, wife of Battus [3] III the Lame, mother of Arcesilaus [3] III. After Arcesilaus reclaimed royal rights and in about 518 BC was banished, P. fled to Euelthon in Salamis in Cyprus and demanded military assistance. After the reconquest of Cyrene by her son and his flight to Barke she ruled as queen with a seat on the council. After Arcesilaus' murder in Barke she avenged him, helped by the Egyptian satrap Aryandes, with a campaign against the ci…

Aristomachus

(424 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀριστόμαχος; Aristómachos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, son of Cleodaeus (Hdt. 6,52; Apollod. 2,171; Paus. 2,7,6). His attempt to conquer the Peloponnese failed because an oracle was misunderstood. He fell in the battle and the country was conquered by his sons Temenus, Cresphontes and (in the Spartan version) Aristodemus [1] (Hyg. Fab. 124. 137) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Healing hero in Rhamnus Healing hero in Rhamnus. His sanctuary lies on a hill south-west of the Rhamnus Acropolis. He …

Cypselides

(373 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Κυψελίδαι; Kypselídai). Dynasty of the Corinthian tyrant  Cypselus [2], who followed the  Bacchiadae around the mid 7th cent. BC. The rule of the C. (Cypselus,  Periander,  Psammetichus) was limited (probably post-event) by the Delphic oracle to Cypselus and his sons, and was supposed to end with the generation of his grandchildren (Hdt. 5,92e). According to Aristotle (Pol. 1315b 11ff.), the  tyrannis of the C. was the second longest lasting in Greece (73 1/2 years). He explains this long duration with Cypselus' popularity (cf. also Nicolaus of Dam…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tirannidi archaiche in Sicilia e Magna Grecia, 1994, 11-20. [German version] [2] Trierarch at Salamis In 480, at the battle of Salamis, P. …
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