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Etruscan

(545 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Sources and Script E. is known to us from roughly 9,000 te…

Gentile

(502 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The gentile ─ signifying membership to a family (  Gens ) ─ is bequeathed by the father to the children and kept by the wife after marriage. It is the defining element in the Roman and Middle Italian system of personal names ( Personal names: Rome and Italia), occupying second place after the praenomen in the formula for names. Aside from birth, other possibilities existed of attaining a gentile: a) through  adoption, wherein the adopted person receives the gentile of the adoptive father; his prior gentile added as a suffix at first ( P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, son of L. …

Cognomen

(496 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] In Roman and middle Italian personal names, the cognomen is the most recent part of the name and is usually placed last; it only came into general usage at the end of the Republic. In terms of its origin and character, the cognomen is an individual name which initially extends the  praenomen in its designation function and then, since the beginning of the imperial period, it increasingly replaces it. The word cognomen, in Plautus mostly still cognomentum (e.g. Persa 60), as a ‘means to recognize identity‘ is derived from cognoscere and only in a secondary development was related to nomen as a…

Supernomen

(228 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] Additional personal name. In the Roman Empire outside of Italy, the nomen gentile system (Personal names III.) was uncommon. Thus, from the 2nd century AD, names consisting of just one word reappear, first in the East, where people often had an indigenous name in addition to a Greek name, e.g. Διονύσιος ὁ καὶ Ἀμόις, AD 79 [1. 5,119]. The supernomen (only in

Latin

(1,423 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A. History Latin is an Indo-European language: like Greek or the Germanic languages, it derived from Proto-Indo-European (PIE; 4th/3rd millennia BC), which can be accessed by means of linguistic reconstruction, via specific changes. In the 3rd millennium BC, the mostly reconstructable proto-Italic separated from the west-PIE dialect continuum (in the Danube region?). The specific traits of Latin formed at that time include the syncretism of ablative and instrumentals, the stem gro…

Lemnian

(207 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A non-Greek language is attested on Lemnos in the north-eastern Aegean from the period before…

Opiter

(168 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)

Praenomen

(445 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] An ancient name for individuals, the praenomen takes the first position in a Roman or central Italian personal name (esp. in the masculine), before ( prae) the nomen, the gentile. It is usuall…

Mamercus

(147 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC (Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos). Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC mentioned in Plut. Timoleon 31,1 (TrGF I 87). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Praenomen Praenomen exclusively used by the Patrician gens of the Aemilii (also used there as a cognomen, but never for freedmen); shortened to Mam.; Greek Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos. First attested for the father of Aemilius [I 25], traced back to M., son of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,18f.).…

Manius

(225 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Roman praenomen , principally used by the patrician families Aemilii, Sergii and Valerii and by the plebeian Acilii, most often in Upper Italy (rarely nomen gentile: ILS 6230 and M. [I 2] below), acronym: a five-stroked M (, , in print

Mettius

(681 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
The praenomen Mettus is known for only two people in the early history of Rome (7th/6th cents. BC), for the Sabine Mettus Curtius [I 2], a contemporary of Romulus (Dion. Hal. Ant. 2,42,2; 46,3; Lib. de praenominibus 1), and for Mettus Fufetius, the dictator of Alba Longa at the time of Tullus Hostilius [4] (Varro in Non. 2,443 L., Verg. Aen. 8,642 etc.). The form Mettius is also transmitted for both, albeit less reliably (Enn. Ann. 126 V.; almost always in Liv., and so on). No etymology of the name suggests itself; the doubled tt indicates a shortened form of the name. Metellus , used only as a cognom…

Personal names

(4,094 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne) | Streck, Michael P. (Munich) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin)
I. General [German version] A. Function The PN is an individual, generally valid sign for naming a person. The need to use a PN exists when a  social contact group is too large to name its members after their role (e.g. mother) and exists in all historically tangible languages. The PN is a universal. Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) [German version] B. Creation of names In antiquity as also today, the PN is usually given soon after birth and kept later; yet it could also be suppl…

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardness of this assumption supports it, as the biographical details and the accepted period when the work was written coincide [1]. The author, who wrote in Greek, appears to have a command of Aramaic as well as of Latin. Whilst the Latin words (e.g. Mk 6:27; 15:15) could indicate that Rome was the place where the work was written, the Aramaic terms (e.g. 5:41; 7:34; 15:34) as well as the explanations of Jewish customs (e.g. 7:3f.; 14:12) demonstrate that the author is acquainted with Palestinian Judaism. Presumably M. writes as a Jewish follower of Jesus for addressees who are primarily non-Jewish but believe in Christ. Mk is dated around AD 70 by most scholars although suggestions for an earlier dating around AD 40 have never been completely silenced [6]. Since the 19th/20th cents. Mk is mostly regarded as the earliest Gospel. The conclusion, which is missing from notable textual evidence (16:9-20), does not appear to have belonged to its original sc…