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Agoratus

(121 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγόρατος; Agóratos). Metic in Piraeus, son of the slave Eumares. In 409 BC, A. was honoured because of his participation in the murder of the oligarch  Phrynichus (GHI2 85; IG I3 102). In 404, he denounced before the council the opponents of the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by  Theramenes. They were sentenced and executed for treason. Later A. received citizenship. After 400 he was brought before the court by means of   apagoge by a relative of one of the denounced individuals. Lysias wrote his thirteenth speech for the plaintiff. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Pentekoste

(333 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ, the 'fiftieth') was a duty at the rate of two per cent. There is evidence of pentekostaí in many Greek cities, such as Athens, Epidaurus, Troezen, Cyparissia, Ceos, Delos, Cimolos (SEG 44,710 Z.31), Erythrae, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, in the Hermias region and in the cities of Upper Egypt, as an import and export duty raised ad valorem on all goods. Before ships were loaded or unloaded goods had to be declared to the πεντηκοστολόγοι ( pentēkostológoi). In Athens the tax on foreign trade amounted to one per cent until the Peloponnes…

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athen…

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entered the service of the Egyptian pharaoh  Acoris. C. was successful in defending the Nile delta against Persian attempts to regain Egypt as a satrapy. In 380 as a result of Persian …

Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW (

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. [German version] [2] Athenian, died on the journey to Crete Athenian, sold (probably before 378 BC) his estate in Prospalta, bought a trireme and journey…

Monopoly

(579 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Greece Although the terms μονοπωλία/ monopōlía and μονοπώλιον/ monopṓlion are documented only since the late 4th cent. BC (Aristot. Pol. 1259a 21-23; Hyp. fr. 43 Jensen), monopolies existed much earlier. According to Aristotle, the poleis set up monopolies for certain goods, especially in times of financial difficulty; such measures belonged to the art of acquiring ( chrēmatistikḗ ). We know of monopolies on sales and exports: private individuals, cities or rulers controlled the trade in certain goods in order to…

Boeotarchs

(170 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] The most important office in the Boeotian League. The College of Boeotarchs, elected by the 11 districts for one year's service, consisted of 11 Boeotarchs before 386 BC, of seven after 364 and of eight at times in 338. Larger cities nominated two boeotarchs, and Thebes, after the capture of Plataea (427 and 373), four. Their extensive powers included, i.a., probouleutic functions for the League's assembly and services as emissaries, but the most important was military command of …

Gryllus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Γρύλλος; Grýllos). [German version] [1] Father of Xenophon Athenian; father of  Xenophon. Traill, PAA 281935. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Xenophon, 4th cent. BC Son of  Xenophon, born after 399 BC. G. was brought up with his brother Diodorus in Sparta. In 362 both fought in the Athenian army as allies of Sparta; G. died fighting on horseback in a skirmish before the battle of Mantinea and was greatly honoured for this (Xen. Hell. 7,5,15-17; Diog. Laert. 2,52-55; Paus. 8,9,5). In Athens a pai…

Theramenes

(497 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Θηραμένης/ Thēraménēs). Important Athenian politician and commander in the late 5th cent. BC; son of Hagnon [1]; teacher of Isocrates. T. participated in the oligarchic overthrow of Athens in 411, was a member of the council of 400 ( T etrakósioi ) and stratēgós . He opposed efforts to end the war against the Peloponnesian Alliance through granting serious concessions and played an essential role in tearing down the fortification of Eetionia which had been built under the oligarchs and which was suppose…

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Menexenus

(101 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος; Menéxenos). [German version] [1] Son of Socrates A son of Socrates, still a child when his father died (Plat. Apo. 34d; Phd. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26). See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32 PA 9975 Traill, PAA 644865. [German version] [2] Pupil of Socrates Pupil of the Sophist Ctesippus, a relative, and of Socrates, at whose death he was present (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phd. 59b). Plato named his dialogue ‘M.’ after him. See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bib…

Siteresion

(110 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (σιτηρέσιον/ sitērésion, 'maintenance money'). In Greece from the middle of the 5th cent. BC money was paid out for maintenance to citizens serving as equestrians, foot soldiers or oarsmen on warships. Hence the terms μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophḗ, σῖτος/ sîtos and siteresion were used synonymously in the 5th century BC. From the 4th cent. BC onwards a clearer distinction was made between soldiers' pay and contributions for maintenance (= siteresion) (Xen. An. 6,2,4; Dem. Or. 4,28 f.; 50,53; Aristot. Oec. 1353a 19-23). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1…

Lamachus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμαχος; Lámachos). Athenian, carried out a successful expedition in c. 436/5 BC against the tyrant of Sinope (Plut. Pericles 20,1). As stratēgós in 424, L. lost ten warships in a storm off Heraclea (Thuc. 4,75,1f.; Diod. Sic. 12,72,4). In early 421, L. was one of the Athenian emissaries who swore to uphold the Peace of Nicias [1] and the Athenian-Spartan symmachía (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 416/5, Alcibiades [3], Nicias and L. were elected stratēgoí autokrátores (‘authorized military leaders’) of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 6,8,2; And. 1,11; Lys. 13,67). In Sicily, L. argued for a surprise attack on Syracuse. He died in the attack on the city's lines of defense in 414 (Thuc. 6,49f.; 101,6; 103,1; Diod. Sic. 13,7f.; Plut. Nicias 18,1-3). The sources depict L. as poor and unassuming, but a brave campaigner and passionate soldier, with a tendency to daredevilry and bellicosity (esp. Aristoph. Ach. 566-625; 1071-1226).…

Mnasilochus

(62 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνασίλοχος; Mnasílochos). Athenian, in 411 BC árchōn during the oligarchic regime of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). After two months in office dismissed by the 5000 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 33,1; IG I3 373,2). Probably identical with the Mnesilochus mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. 2,3,2), one of the 30 tyrants of 404/3. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 10324  Traill, PAA 656955.

Leotrophides

(57 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λεωτροφίδης; Leōtrophídēs). Athenian stratēgós, who together with Timarchus defeated the Megarans at Mount Cerata on the Attic-Megaran border in 409 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,65,1f.); probably identical with the chorēgós L. mocked for his leanness in Aristophanes (Av. 1406), Theopomp. Com. fr. 25 and Hermippus fr. 36 PCG. Traill, PAA 607065. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of sp…

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his a…
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