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Ziaelas

(296 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζιαήλας; Ziaḗlas). The son from the first marriage of Nicomedes [2] I was excluded by him from the succession to the Bithynian throne. Z. therefore fled c. 255 BC to an Armenian king whose name is not known (Samos [1]). After his father's death, with the help of the Galatian Tolistobogii in battles lasting until c. 250, he succeeded in gaining the main part of Bithynia (Memnon FGrH 434 F 14). In a letter sent to Cos between 246 and 242 (Syll.3 456 = Welles 25) Z. recognized the asylum ( ásylon ) of the Temple of Asclepius there. The letter also r…

Zamasphes

(97 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαμάσφης/ Zamásphēs). Persian king, son of Peroz [1] I. His reign 496-499 interrupted that of his brother Cavades [1] I, who had been dethroned in a conspiracy of high nobles and Zoroastrian clerics because of his support for Mazdak. When Cavades, who had escaped from the 'Castle of Forgetfulness', returned at the head of an army of Hephthalitae, Z. vacated the throne without a fight (Agathias 4,28). His later fate is unclear. PLRE 2, 1195. Sassanids Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. Lippold, s. v. Z., RE 9 A, 2308 f. K. Schippmann, Grundzüge der Geschi…

Phraates

(951 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φραάτης; Phraátēs). [German version] [1] P. I Parthian king, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC Son of Phriapatius, Parthian king from 176 BC. In about 171 BC, P. defeated the Amardi and deported them to Charax near the Caspian Gates (Isidorus of Charax 7). He died soon afterwards, after having appointed his brother Mithridates [12] I as his successor (Just. Epit. 41,5,9-10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenia, 1989, Index s.v. P. [German version] [2] P. II Parthian king, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Nephew of P. [1], son of Mithridates…

Demonax

(429 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Δημῶναξ; Dēmônax or Δαμῶναξ; Damônax). [German version] [1] D. of Mantinea Arbitrator in Cyrene about 550 BC Respected aristocrat who was appointed as ‘arbitrator’ (καταρτιστήρ; katartistḗr) in  Cyrene about 550 BC on the advice of the Delphic Oracle (Hdt. 4,161). To resolve the internal conflicts, D. reformed the three phylai in which he redistributed the different groups of colonists and immigrants, the Theraeans and Perioeci, Peloponnesians and Cretans, ‘Nesiotai’, i.e. people from the (Ionian?) islands [1]. D. restricted the royal power o…

Ariobarzanes

(559 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριοβαρζάνης; Ariobarzánēs, Old Persian Ariyabrdana). [German version] [1] Satrap of Dascylium Vice-governor in 407 BC under  Pharnabazus, satrap of Dascylium, and perhaps his eldest son (Xen. Hell. 1,4,7) [1]; guest-friend of the Spartan  Antalcidas (Xen. Hell. 5,1,28). Succeeded Pharnabazus in 387 BC as satrap of Propontis [1]. In 368 BC A. succeeded, with the aid of his confidant  Philiscus, in assuring the support of Athens and Sparta (Xen. Hell. 7,1,27), which he in fact obtained during his revolt a…
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