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Patrocles

(438 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πατροκλῆς; Patroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian office holder, end of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, árchōn basileús in (404/)403 BC; a relative of Isocrates, who defended him (Isoc. Or. 18,5). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Develin, 94 Nr. 1  Traill, PAA 768600. [German version] [2] Accuser of Demosthenes An Athenian from Phlya; his accusation of paranomia (Paranomon graphe) against Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,5) was unanimously rejected and cost him a fine of 500 drachmas. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 768710. [German version] [3] Gree…

Actus

(559 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Legal action An action, especially a legal action (Dig. 49,1,12) i. a. defining characteristic of   alienatio : omnis a., per quem dominium transfertur, Cod. Iust. 5,23,1. Formal legal actions in accordance with the old   ius civile , e.g. the   mancipatio , are described as acti legitimi. Any added condition renders them ineffective. Additionally, actus can mean a utility (  servitus ), for example the right to drive draught animals and beasts of burden over a plot of land, including the right of way ( iter, Dig. 8,3,1pr.). This actus is a res mancipi, and is obtained i…

Moschion

(371 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
(Μοσχίων). [English version] [1] Tragiker, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Athenischer Tragiker, vemutlich 2. H. 3. Jh.v.Chr., bekannt fast ausschließlich durch Zitate bei Stobaios. Als Titel bezeugt sind ‘Telephos und zwei histor. Dramen: ‘Themistokles, in dem vermutlich in Anlehnung an Aischylos' ‘Perser die Seeschlacht bei Salamis im Zentrum stand, mit dem Unterschied, daß M. Themistokles zum Protagonisten machte; und ‘Die Leute von Pherai, in denen wohl der Tod des Alexandros [15] von Pherai behandelt wurde. In einem…

Ion

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἴων). [English version] [1] Heros der Ionier Eponymer Heros der Ionier (Iones). Über seine Abstammung gibt es verschiedene Traditionen, die den polit. Primat Athens in den Vordergrund stellen. In den frühen und prägendsten Versionen erscheint I. als Sohn des Xuthos und der Kreusa und damit als Enkel des Hellen, des Stammvaters der Hellenen, und des athen. Königs Erechtheus (Strab. 8,383; Paus. 7,1,2). I.s Bruder ist Achaios [1], der Stammvater der Achaier, seine Onkel von Vaterseite sind Aiolos [1] un…

Protarchos

(253 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Komödiendichter aus Thespiai, der im 1. Jh. v. Chr. einmal an den Soteria von Akraiphia siegte und Sohn oder Vater des Ependichters Protogenes war; sonst ist nichts bekannt. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [English version] [2] Epikureer aus Bargilia, 2. Jh. v. Chr. P. aus Bargilia. Lehrer des Demetrios [21] Lakon (Strab. 14,20; 2. Jh. v. Chr.), vielleicht in Milet. Daß er epikureisches Schuloberhaupt des “Gartens” ( kḗpos ) war, ist unwahrscheinlich. Dorandi, …

Lycophron

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Λυκόφρων; Lykóphrōn). [German version] [1] Younger son of Periander of Corinth The younger son of Periander of Corinth and Melissa, daughter of Procles of Epidaurus. In the war between Periander and his father-in-law, L. is sent to Cercyra and murdered there by the Cercyraeans, who presumably considered him a tyrant and successor of Periander. Legend-building in an early phase can be seen in Herodotus (3,50-53; cf. Diog. Laert. 1,94f.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 60). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Founder of the tyrannis in Pherai, c. 404/390 BC Founder of the t…

Ion

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἴων; Íōn). [German version] [1] Hero of the Ionians Eponymous hero of the Ionians ( Iones). Several traditions of his ancestry emphasizing Athens' political primacy are extant. The earliest and most influential versions present I. as the son of  Xuthus and Creusa, thus as the grandson of  Hellen, progenitor of the Hellenes, and of the Athenian king  Erechtheus (Str. 8,383; Paus. 7,1,2). I.'s brother is Achaeus [1], progenitor of the Achaeans, his paternal uncles are  Aeolus [1] and  Dorus. With his wife…

Polyidus

(381 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολύιδος/ Polýidos, Latin Polyidus). [German version] [1] Mythical seer and miracle-worker from Corinth ('of wide learning'). Mythical seer and miracle-worker from Corinth (cf. Cic. Leg. 2,33), descendant of Melampus [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 115a; Paus. 1,43,5), spouse of Eurydameia, father of Euchenor (Hom. Il. 13,663-668; cf. Cic. Div. 1,89), Cleitus [2], Astycrateia and Manto (not identical with the seeress Manto). His powers are testified to by numerous accounts of his assitence: in Corinth, for example…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Python

(1,046 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Schmitt, Hatto H. (München) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων). [English version] [1] Von Apollon bei Delphi getöteter Drache Ein ungeheurer Drache, den Apollon bei Delphoi mit seinen Pfeilen tötet. Die älteste Fassung der Gesch. bietet Hom. h. 3,300-374: Apollon besiegt eine Drachin, die in der Nähe von Delphoi ihr Unwesen treibt und der Hera ihren Sohn Typhon in Obhut gegeben hat. Nach ihrem verfaulenden (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) Leichnam erhalten der Ort und der Gott den Beinamen Pythṓ (vgl. auch den Namen der delphischen Seherin Pythía [1]). Nach Eur. Iph. T. 1245-1252 ist der Drache männlich und bew…

Polemon

(1,748 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων). [English version] [1] akad. Philosoph, 4./3. Jh. v. Chr. Akadem. Philosoph, ca. 350 bis verm. 276/5 v. Chr.; wurde von Xenokrates für die Philosophie gewonnen (legendäre Ausgestaltung der Berufung bei Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.) und war später dessen Nachfolger in der Leitung der Akademeia. Er war Lehrer von Krates [3] und Krantor, außerdem der Stoiker Zenon von Kition und Ariston [7] von Chios. Von den zahlreichen Schriften, die P. nach dem Ausweis der ant. Quellen verfaßt haben soll (Diog. Laert. 4…

Philinos

(563 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος). [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker Athener. Ph. schlug vor, alle Theten unter die Hopliten ( hoplítai ) aufzunehmen (Antiph. fr. 61 aus der Rede Katá Philínu). 420/419 v.Chr. wollte er ein gegen ihn eingeleitetes Verfahren wegen Veruntreuung öffentl. Gelder verhindern, indem er unmittelbar vor dem Prozeß einen Philokrates dazu bewog, gegen den Ankläger wegen unabsichtlicher Tötung Klage zu erheben. Bei Annahme der Klage durfte der Ankläger des Ph. keine gehegten Stätten, auch keine Gerichtsstätten ( nómima) mehr betreten (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfri…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Nikomachos

(1,580 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος). [English version] [1] Heilheros s. Gorgasos und Nikomachos Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] athenischer Amtsträger, 410-404 v.Chr. Angeblich Sohn eines Staatssklaven und erst spät in die athenische Bürgerschaft aufgenommen, war N. 410-404 v.Chr. führend in der Kommission zur Aufzeichnung der Gesetze ( anagrapheís tōn nómōn) tätig. Unter den Dreißig ( triákonta ) vertrieben, kehrte er 403 zurück und wurde erneut anagrapheús. 399/8 warf man N. in einer Anklage vor, er habe Gesetze manipuliert, so zur Verurteilung des Demagogen…
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