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Biottus

(80 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A writer of comedies who is known to us only through inscriptions and who once won first prize in the comedy contest at the Athenian Lenaea [1. test. 3] and came third on each occasion in 167 and 154 BC at the great Dionysia [1. test. 1, 2]. From each of those last two contests only the title of B.'s entry is known (‘The ignorant one , ‘The poet). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 36.

Damoxenus

(82 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δαμόξενος; Damóxenos). Attic comedic author of the 3rd cent. BC, known to have been victorious at the Dionysia once [1. Testimonia 2]. There is evidence for two plays. His Σύντροφοι contains the longest speech by a cook preserved in a comedy (fr. 2: 68 verses); the speaker presents himself as a disciple of Democritus and more especially of Epicurus and is scornful of everyone who is not, even the Stoics. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 1-7.

Agathenor

(50 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A writer of comedies from Ephesus, who is known only from inscriptions [1] and who at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC was the winner at the Ludi Romani in Magnesia on the Maeander with a Milesia. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 1.

Amphis

(171 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀμφις; Ámphis) Attic comic poet possibly from the island of Andros [1. test.], whose writings can only be approximately dated to 350 BC and some time thereafter [2. 197]. Of the 28 titles of works that are preserved, a quarter relate to mythical subjects, amongst these is a reworking of the Callisto story; A. appears to have altered this story in a very unconventional way [2. 234]. Furthermore A. has not forgotten the Attic reality in his works: he deals derisively with the philos…

Machon

(186 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάχων; Máchōn) from Sicyon or Corinth; lived at the time of Apollodorus [5] of Carystus (3rd cent. BC) [1. test. 1] and was active as a writer in Alexandria, also the place of his death. M. wrote Χρεῖαι ( Chreîai, ‘Anecdotes’) in iambic trimeter (of which a total of about 470 are extant in Ath. Deipnosophistaí XIII) about hetaerae, parasites and poets (Diphilus, Euripides, Philoxenus), as well as important political figures (Ptolemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes); the material, in which sex plays a certain role, comes from anecdotal prose w…

Deinolochus

(122 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δεινολόχος; Deinolóchos). Writer of Doric Comedy, in our sources dated to the 73rd Olympiad (488-485 BC) and attested as the son or pupil [1. Test. 1], but also the rival [1. Test. 2], of  Epicharmus. He is supposed to have written 14 plays; thanks to a papyrus [2. no. 78] the sum of known titles by him has now grown to 12, of which ten suggest a mythical theme. Scarcely anything more can be said about the content and structure of these plays (except that they were probably comparable with those of Epicharmus). A single fragment of verse survives. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Gö…

Paramonus

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Παράμονος; Parámonos). Attic comic writer who won third place at the Dionysia of 183 BC, sixth place at those held in 169 and who was posthumously awarded first place at the Dionysia of 167 [1. test. 1-3]. Only two titles of plays, Ναυαγός (Nauagós; 'the Shipwrecked') and Χορηγῶν ('The Sponsor), are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 101.

Pyrrhen

(32 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πυρρήν; Pyrrhḗn). 4th century BC Attic comic poet, who was victorious at the Lenaea on one occasion; nothing else is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583.

Anaxandrides

(395 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξανδρίδης; Anaxandrídēs). An Attic writer of comedies from Rhodes or [1. test. 1] Colophon (apparently he also produced dithyrambs [1. test. 2]), of whom, thanks to IGUR 218 [1. test. 5], more exact dates are known than of any other of his rivals: from this inscription it is clear that A. was an active theatre poet at least between 376 and 349 BC and also in the years in-between frequently performed; even earlier was the Protesilaus, which reflects the great wedding of the Athenian general Iphicrates to a Thracian princess (an event of the early 380s…

Diverbium

(111 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] With few exceptions [2.220] all scenes in the manuscripts of Plautus’ plays that are written in iambic senarii bear the direction diverbium (cf. Donat. II p. 5 W.), marking those sections of the play to be performed without musical accompaniment (cf. Plautus Stichus 758-768: the metre changes to the iambic senarius during a pause by the flautist). The oldest testimony (Liv. 7,2,10) confirms this. In late antiquity the grammarian Diomedes (1,491,22-24) was alone in taking diverbium in its literal Greek sense of ‘dialogue’ (and  canticum as ‘monologue’ [2. 220]). Nesse…

Eteagoras

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐτεαγόρας; Eteagóras). Writer of comedy in the 3rd cent. BC; one comedy is epigraphically attested to have won the Lenaea. Neither the titles nor fragments of his plays have survived. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG V, 183.

Evangelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγγελος; Euángelos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (uncertain), of whose Ἀνακαλυπτομένη ( Anakalyptoménē) a fragment in trochaic tetrameters has survived: the master of the house and a cook make preparations for a wedding. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 184f.

Euthycles

(28 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθυκλῆς; Euthyklês). Poet of the late Old Comedy (?). Two titles of plays and two fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 541f.

Eunicus

(57 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εύνικος; Eúnikos) Poet of Attic Old Comedy, of whom we have two play titles (and two fragments, the second uncertain). For a play about hetaerae, Ἄντεια/ Ánteia (test. ii), Philyllius is also cited as the author while for the Πόλεις/ Póleis Philyllius and Aristophanes are also named as authors. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 5, 278f.

Alcenor

(68 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic writer of comedies, who is known to us only by way of inscription [1] and who, shortly before  Timocles, won a victory at the Lenaea comedy contest with a play that is no longer known to us; he is probably therefore to be assigned to the period after the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 16.

Rhinthon

(243 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ῥίνθων/ Rhínthōn). Poet, composer of literary Phlyakes plays (of which he is said to have written 38 [1. test. 2 and 3]), from Syracuse [1. test. 1], active at Tarentum [1. test. 2 and 3] in the reign of Ptolemy I (Ptolemaeus [1]) (322-283 BC, reigned from 305). Of nine surviving titles, eight are identifiable as parodies of tragedies by Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ Amphitryon , Ἡρακλῆς/ Heracles , Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/ Iphigeneia at Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ Iphigeneia among the Taurians, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/ Meleager the Slave, Μήδεια/ Medea , Ὀρέστας/ Orestes , Τήλεφο…

Epinikos

(179 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(Ἐπίνικος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter Komödiendichter, von dem noch zwei Stücktitel und zwei Fragmente erhalten sind. Seine Datierung (späteres 3./frühes 2. Jh.v.Chr.) ergibt sich aus dem Stücktitel Mnēsiptólemos: Er bezeichnet den Hofhistoriographen (FGrH 164) Antiochos' III. (223-187 v.Chr.) und stellt damit ein bemerkenswert spätes Beispiel für das namentliche Verspotten (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν) dar. In fr. 1 wird Mnesiptolemos selbst redend eingeführt und in seiner verschnörkelten, fast dithyrambisierenden Art,…

Euphronios

(423 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
(Εὐφρόνιος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie Dichter der Alten Komödie, der im Jahr 458 v.Chr. an den Großen Dionysien siegte [1. test. 1. 2]. Weder Titel noch Fragmente sind erhalten. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 293. [English version] [2] att. Vasenmaler und Töpfer der Spätarchaik, ca. 520-500 v. Chr. Att. Vasenmaler und Töpfer der Spätarchaik, der wie Phintias und Euthymides zur Gruppe der “Pioniere” zählt, die der rf. Vasenmalerei zum Durchbruch verhalfen. E. arbeitete als Maler zwischen 520 u…

Euetes

(109 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐέτης). [English version] [1] Tragiker Tragiker, führte zur Zeit des Epicharmos in Athen auf (486/5 oder 485/4 v.Chr.; vgl. Suda ε 2766; s.a. [1.34]). Ein Sieg bei den Dionysien kurz nach 484 ist überliefert (DID A 3a, 12). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 H. Hoffmann, Chronologie der att. Tragödie, 1951. TrGF 6. [English version] [2] Komödiendichter Komödiendichter, dessen einziger überlieferter Stücktitel Epíklēros (‘Die Erbtochter) sich chronologisch kaum mit der Notiz der Suda (ε 2766) vereinbaren läßt, ein E. habe zur gleichen Zeit wie …

Magnes

(267 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μάγνης). [English version] [1] eponymer Herrscher der mittelgriech. Landschaft Magnesia Eponymer Herrscher der mittelgriech. Landschaft Magnesia. Seine Abkunft wird verschieden angegeben; das älteste Zeugnis (Hes. cat. 7) kennt ihn als Sohn des Zeus und der Deukaliontochter Thyia mit Heimat in Pieria; als sein Bruder wird hier Makedon, der mythische Stammvater der Makedonen, genannt; nach Apollod. 1,16 hat er einen Sohn namens Pieros. Diese verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen deuten auf Landnahme der Magneter von Norden aus hin. Visser, Edzard (Basel) [English version] [2] S…

Hermippos

(948 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Dichter der att. Alten Komödie, Bruder des Komödiendichters Myrtilos. Der Beginn seiner Schaffenszeit dürfte um 440 v.Chr. liegen: Ein Dionysiensieg ist für 435 v.Chr. bezeugt [1. test. 3], auf der inschr. Dionysien-Siegerliste steht H. hinter Pherekrates, sowie vor Aristophanes [1] und Eupolis [1. test. 4], auf der Lenäensiegerliste hinter Kratinos und Pherekrates und vor Phrynichos, Myrtilos und Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Neben dem Dio…

Myrtilos

(416 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Hermes und der Phaëthuse Sohn des Hermes und der Phaëthuse, Klymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) bzw. Theobule (Hyg. fab. 224,5) oder des Zeus und der Klymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); Wagenlenker des Oinomaos [1] (evtl. schon in der Alkmaiōnís erwähnt, vgl. fr. 6 PEG I, und als Figur am Ostgiebel des Zeustempels von Olympia dargestellt). Vor dem Wagenrennen um die Hand der Hippodameia [1] entfernt M. einen Radpflock an Oinomaos' Wagen (Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. epit. 2,4-9; Hyg. fab…

Komödie

(5,159 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Lefèvre, Eckhard (Freiburg)
I. Griechisch [English version] A. Anfänge Die plausibelste Etym. von K. ist “Komos-Lied”; Kṓmoi (Umzüge von Menschengruppen bzw. Chören) sind seit dem frühen 7. Jh.v.Chr. auf Vasen dargestellt; darauf erscheinen u.a. Tänzer in (zum Teil an Bauch und Gesäß ausgestopften) Trikots und Tierkostümen (vgl. die späteren Tierchöre der att. Alten K.). Manche Vasenbilder zeigen auch die Phallos-Prozessionen, die laut Aristoteles (poet. 4,1449a 10f.) am Beginn der K. standen. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [English version] B. Frühformen außerhalb Athens Für die Entwicklun…

Lysippos

(698 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Λύσιππος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie, um 400 v. Chr. Dichter der Alten Komödie, der vielleicht schon in den 430er Jahren v.Chr. an den Dionysia siegte [1. test. *2] und von dem noch Siege im Jahr 409 und später bezeugt sind [1. test. 3]. Erh. sind lediglich drei Stücktitel; Fr. (außer dreien ohne Titelangabe) sind nur den ‘Bakchen (Βάκχαι) zugewiesen: In fr. 1 spricht ein (von seinem Vater in einen Brunnen geworfener) Mann namens Hermon mit seinem Bruder. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [English version] [2] Bronzebild…

Eubulos

(923 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος). [English version] [1] Athener um 400 - 330 v. Chr. E., Sohn des Spintharos aus dem Demos Probalinthos, ca. 400 bis vor 330 v.Chr., evtl. identisch mit dem Athener, der 369 die Rückkehrerlaubnis für Xenophon beantragte (Istros FGrH 334 F 32), und einem 370/69 bezeugten Thesmotheten Athens (SEG 19,133,4). Dann wäre er danach auch Mitglied des Areiopages gewesen. Ab 354/3 gelangte E. als einer der Verwalter der Theorikon-Kasse, durch seine Fähigkeiten als Rhetor, die Mitgliedschaft im Areiopag und…

Lynkeus

(490 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Λυγκεύς, zu λύγξ, “Luchs”). [English version] [1] Sohn des Aphareus Sohn des Aphareus [1], des Königs von Messene, und der Arene; Bruder des Idas (L. wird stets mit diesem zusammen erwähnt; das Brüderpaar wird Apharetidai genannt). Die Brüder nehmen an der Fahrt der Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,151) und an der Kalydonischen Jagd teil (Apollod. 1,67; Ov. met. 8,304). Sie sollen Helene entführt und Theseus übergeben haben (Plut. Theseus 31,1). Im Kampf mit den Dioskuren stirbt L. durch Polydeukes (verschiede…

Epilycus [2]

(212 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἐπίλυκος; Epílykos). [German version] Epilycus Writer of comedies Comedy writer, whose surviving work consists of the title of one play (Κωραλίσκος; Kōralískos, The little lad from Crete? cf. Phot. p. 198,15) and of nine fragments; fr. 3 (remnants of catalectic anapaestic tetrameters) and fr. 4 (catalectic anapaestic dimeter in Doric dialect) show that he belonged to the Old Comedy (late 5th, early 4th cent. BC). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 170-173. [German version] [2] Nephew of Andocides [1], 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC The son of Teisander…

Evetes

(124 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐέτης; Euétēs). [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian, whose plays were performed in Athens at the time of  Epicharmus (486/5 or 485/4 BC; cf. Suda ε 2766; see also [1.34]). A victory at the Dionysia soon after 484 is transmitted (DID A 3a, 12). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 H. Hoffmann, Chronologie der att. Tragödie, 1951. TrGF 6. [German version] [2] Comedian Comic poet; his only transmitted play title Epíklēros (‘The Heiress’) can hardly be made to fit in chronologically with the observation in the Suda (ε 2766) that a playwright named E.…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Hermippus

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος; Hérmippos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Writer of Attic Old Comedy, brother of the comedian  Myrtilus. Active probably around 440 BC: a Dionysian victory is attested for 435 BC [1. test. 3], on the epigraphical list of Dionysian victors H. ranks after  Pherecrates and before  Aristophanes [1] and  Eupolis [1. test. 4], and on the list of Lenaean victors after  Cratinus and Pherecrates and before  Phrynichus, Myrtilus and Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Apart from the Dionysian …

Comedy

(5,622 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Lefèvre, Eckhard (Freiburg)
I. Greek [German version] A. Beginnings The most plausible etymology of comedy is ‘komos song’; kṓmoi (processions of groups of people or choruses) are depicted on vases from the early 7th cent. BC onwards; there appear, inter alia, dancers in leotards (partly padded on the waist and buttocks) and animal costumes (cf. the later animal choruses of Attic Old Comedy). Many pictures on vases also show the phallus-processions that according to Aristotle (poet. 4,1449a 10f.) were the origin of comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] B. Early forms outside Athens The …

Timocles

(419 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Τιμοκλῆς/ Timoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian author of comedies, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Important Athenian author of comedies in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC to whom the Suda [1 test. 1] attributes 20 plays (divided into two authors by the same name who in reality are identical). 28 titles have been transmitted (uncertain: Geōrgós, 'The Farmer') and altogether 42 fragments. Only one win is recorded on the Lenaean list of winners [1 test. 3], two places ahead of Menander [4]. T.' active period lasted from the 340s (allusion to the Halon…

Myrtilus

(452 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος; Myrtílos). [German version] [1] Son of Hermes and Phaethusa Son of Hermes and Phaethusa, Clymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) or Theobule (Hyg. Fab. 224,5) or of Zeus and Clymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); charioteer to Oenomaus [1] (possibly already mentioned in the Alkmaiōnís , cf. fr. 6 PEG I, and depicted as a figure on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia). Before the chariot race to win the hand of Hippodameia [1] M. removes a lynch pin from  Oenomaus' chariot (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. Epit. 2,4…

Lukianos

(3,682 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
(Λουκιανός). [English version] [1] L. von Samosata griech. Satiriker und Rhetor, 2. Jh. Bedeutender griech. rhet.-satirischer Schriftsteller der röm. Kaiserzeit. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [English version] A. Leben und Werdegang Geb. wurde L. zw. 115 und 125 n.Chr. [4. 8] in Samosata am Euphrat, am östlichen Rand des röm. Syrien. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘Über den Traum, oder: Das Leben Lukians, Somn.) schildert plastisch (aber nicht unbedingt wahrheitsgetreu) L.' Entscheidung für einen an den groß…

Magnes

(305 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μάγνης; Mágnēs). [German version] [1] Eponymous ruler of the central Greek territory of Magnesia Eponymous ruler of the central Greek region of Magnesia. His origins are variously described; the oldest reference (Hes. Cat. 7) calls him a son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion and a native of Pieria. Here Macedon, the mythical progenitor of the Macedonians, is referred to as his brother; according to Apollod. 1,16 he has a son named Pierus. These familial relationships indicate acquisition of land by the Magnesians from the north. Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son o…

Lynceus

(534 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Λυγκεύς/ Lynkeús, related to λύγξ, ‘lynx’). [German version] [1] Son of Aphareus Son of Aphareus [1], king of Messene, and of Arene; brother of Idas (L. is always mentioned together with him; the pair of brothers is called Apharetidae). The brothers take part in the journey of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,151) and in the Calydonian hunt (Apollod. 1,67; Ov. Met. 8,304). They are said to have abducted Helene and delivered her to Theseus (Plut. Theseus 31,1). In the battle with the Dioscuri, L. dies at the h…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…

Lysippus

(811 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λύσιππος; Lýsippos). [German version] [1] Writer of the Old Comedy, c. 400 BC Poet of the Old Comedy who perhaps as early as the 430s BC won at the Dionysia [1. test. *2] and about whom further victories are attested in 409 and later [1. test. 3]. Only three titles of plays are extant; fragments (apart from three without a title) are only attributed to the ‘Bacchae’ (Βάκχαι): In fragment 1 a man by the name of Hermon (who had been thrown into a well by his father) talks to his brother. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor…

Baton

(220 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Βάτων). [English version] [1] Wagenlenker des Amphiaraos Wagenlenker des Amphiaraos. Wie dieser stammte er aus dem Geschlecht des Melampus. Zusammen mit Amphiaraos und seinem Wagen wurde er in der Schlacht von Theben von der Erde verschlungen. Er besaß in Argos ein Heiligtum in der Nähe des Amphiaraos-Heiligtums (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). Die Argiver weihten den Wagen des Amphiaraos mit der Statue des B. nach Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Princeton) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [English version] [2] att. Komödiendichter, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Kom…

Kriton

(311 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Κρίτων). [English version] [1] Freund des Sokrates Wohlhabender gleichaltriger Freund des Sokrates, wie dieser aus dem Demos Alopeke (Plat. apol. 33d; Plat. Krit. 44b; Xen. mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); Gesprächspartner des Sokrates in Platons ‘Kriton und ‘Euthydemos und bei Xen. mem. 2,9,1-3. In Platons ‘Kriton rät K. Sokrates erfolglos zur Flucht aus dem Gefängnis. Der Epikureer Idomeneus behauptete, in Wirklichkeit habe nicht Kriton, sondern Aischines [1] aus Sphettos dies getan (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Di…

Eudoxos

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (München) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Εὔδοξος). [English version] [1] von Knidos Mathematiker und Astronom, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Einer der bedeutendsten ant. Mathematiker und Astronomen, wurde vermutlich 391/0 v.Chr. geb. (zur Problematik der Datierung [7. 137-139]). Er studierte Mathematik bei Archytas [1] und Medizin bei Philistion. Mit 23 J. kam er nach Athen und soll dort Vorlesungen u.a. bei Platon gehört haben. Auf Kosten knidischer Freunde ging E. vermutlich 365/4 [11] mit einem Empfehlungsschreiben des Agesilaos [2] an König Nektanebos nach Ä…

Eubulides

(519 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Εὐβουλίδης). [English version] [1] E. aus Milet Megariker, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Megariker. Die Lebenszeit des E. (Mitte 4. Jh. v.Chr.) bestimmt sich durch seine heftigen Attacken gegen Aristoteles, von denen in den Quellen mehrfach die Rede ist. Zum Teil handelte es sich dabei um persönliche Verunglimpfungen (Eus. Pr. Ev. 15,2,5), zum Teil um Kritik an bestimmten log. Theoremen des Aristoteles (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Möglicherweise setzte sich umgekehrt auch Aristoteles mit Lehren d…

Antiphanes

(679 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
[English version] [1] Komödiendichter, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Komödiendichter, zu dessen Familie und Herkunft recht widersprüchliche Angaben vorliegen [1. test. 1, 2]. Sowohl sein Vater wie sein Sohn (der seinerseits als Komödiendichter noch Stücke seines Vaters aufführte [1. test 1]) hießen Stephanos. A. wurde in der 93. Olympiade (zwischen 408 und 404 v. Chr.) geboren [1. test. 1] und soll bereits zwanzig Jahre später (›nach der 98. Olympiade‹ [1. test. 2]) mit seiner Bühnentätigkeit begonnen haben. Im A…

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Diophantus

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Διοφαντός; Diophantós). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Author of comedies, dates unknown; one fragment and the title of one play (Μετοικιζόμενος) have been preserved. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 42. [German version] [2] Commander under Mithridates VI Eupator From Sinope, son of Asclepiodotus, commander to Mithridates VI Eupator. In 110 BC he provided skilful military and diplomatic support to the inhabitants of the city of Chersonesus and thus enabled them to withstand the Scythians (Str. 7,3,1…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Eubulides

(521 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὐβουλίδης; Euboulídēs). [German version] [1] E. from Miletus Megarian of the 4th cent. BC Member of the  Megarian school. The time when E. lived (mid 4th cent. BC) is determined by his intense attacks against Aristotle, which are repeatedly mentioned in the sources. In part these are personal attacks (Euseb. Praep. evang. 15,2,5), in part criticism of certain logical theorems by Aristotle (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Possibly, Aristotle may in turn have discussed the teachings of E. There is evidence tha…

Timoxenus

(144 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Τιμόξενος/ Timóxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Achaean League, 3rd cent. BC Achaean, political friend of Aratus [2], several times  stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaeans): in 225/4 BC and/or 224/3 (Pol. 2,53,2; Plut. Kleomenes 20,8; Plut. Aratos 38,3; cf. [1. 254 f.; 2. 149]), 221/0 (Pol. 4,6,4; Plut. Aratos 47,3) and 216/5 (Pol. 5,106,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 1, 1970 2 R. Urban, Wachstum und Krise des Achäischen Bundes von 280 bis 222 v. Chr., 1979. [German version] [2] Athen…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Eudoxus

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Εὔδοξος; Eúdoxos). [German version] [1] of Cnidus Ancient mathematician and astronomer One of the most important ancient mathematicians and astronomers, he was presumably born in 391/390 BC (on the problem of dating see [7. 137-139]). He studied mathematics with  Archytas [1] and medicine with  Philistion. At the age of 23 he went to Athens and it is said that, among other things, he attended lectures there with  Plato. At the expense of his Cnidian friends, presumably in 365/4 [11], E. went with a letter…
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