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Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Argyrologoi nees

(92 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀργυρολόγοι νῆες; argyrológoi nêes). With the onset of the Peloponnesian War the Athenians sent out special ships to collect overdue tribute (φόροι; phóroi) and additional renders from members of the Athenian League. The ships were commanded by generals (Thuc. 2,69,1; 3,19,1; 4,50,1; 4,75,1; Aristoph. Equ. 1070 f.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 24,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,8; 1,1,12). The word ἀργυρολογεῖν ( argyrologeîn) is also in general use for the collection of monies (Xen. Hell. 4,8,30; Aeschin. Ctes. 159).  Athenian League Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 S. …

Nautikon daneion

(465 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναυτικὸν δάνειον/ nautikòn dáneion; sea loan). The ND was a loan ( dáneion) granted to a long-distance merchant ( émporos) or ship's owner ( naúklēros) at interest (ναυτικὸς τόκος, nautikós tókos) for the duration of a commercial voyage - either for a one-way voyage (ἑτερόπλουν δάνειον, heteróploun dáneion) or for a round trip (ἀμφοτερόπλουν δάνειον, amphoteróploun dáneion) - for which the ship or its freight was the bond ( hypothḗkē [1]). Egyptian documents show that guarantors assumed liability for the fulfilment of the agreement. The loan agreement ( syngraphḗ

Naukleros

(290 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύκληρος; naúklēros). A naúklēros was a ship-owner or also a captain conducting internal or overseas trade with his own or a leased ship (cf. Hdt. 1,5,2; 4,152,1; Xen. Oec. 8,12). He also offered other traders cargo space for sea transport; the naúklēros was thus not always distinct from the émporos . From the end of the 4th cent. BC, the naúklēroi, who were predominantly foreigners, often formed their own associations, often cultic (Associations); trading societies with their own capital separate from the private wealth of participants …

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Misthos

(883 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(μισθός; misthós). [German version] I. Definition The word misthós was used in Greece in the meaning of ‘price’ or ‘payment’ for a service performed (wage, salary). Misthós also meant the remuneration for granting the use of movable and unmovable goods (cf. μίσθωσις, místhōsis ). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] II. Archaic and Classical Period Members of the sub-peasant class (thetes, pelátai ), who hired themselves out as agricultural servants to nobles or farmers, lived on the estate, received provisions and after th…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Leogoras

(330 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας). [English version] [1] Vater des Redners Andokides [1], 5. Jh. v. Chr. Vater des Redners Andokides [1], Mitglied einer altadeligen athen. Familie, die sich auf Telemachos und Hermes zurückführte und mit den Alkmaionidai in Heiratsverbindungen stand (Hellanikos FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. wurde von Aristophanes [3] wegen seines ausschweifenden und bes. verschwenderischen Lebenswandels verspottet. 426/5 v.Chr. leitete er eine Gesandtschaft zum Makedonenkönig Perdikkas II. (IG I3 61, Z. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). Von dem Vorwurf, an der P…

Meletos

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος). [English version] [1] Athener, ca. 415 v.Chr. Athener. Im J. 415 v.Chr. als Beteiligter an der Mysterien-Profanation und Hermenverstümmelung denunziert (Hermokopidenfrevel), floh M. aus Attika und wurde in Abwesenheit zum Tode verurteilt (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Vielleicht identisch mit M., dem Urenkel des Alkmaioniden Megakles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825  Traill, PAA 639290. [English version] [2] Ankläger des Andokides, 400 v.Chr. Athener, erhielt mit Sokrates und anderen im J. 404 v.Chr. von den 30 Tyrannen ( triákonta

Drakontides

(146 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης). [English version] [1] Athener, Kommandant im Peloponn. Krieg Athener, Sohn des Leogoras aus dem Demos Thorai; 446/5 v.Chr. epistátēs, 433/2 stratēgós und in dieser Eigenschaft einer der Kommandanten einer Hilfsflotte für Kerkyra im Herbst 433 (vgl. Thuk. 1,51,4; zur dortigen Textverderbnis [1. 95]). D. war entschiedener Gegner des Perikles und trug 430 zu dessen Absetzung bei (Plut. Perikles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 S. Hornblower, Commentary 1, 1991 2 F.J. Frost, Pericles and Dracontides, in: JHS 84, 1964, 69-72. …

Metaneira

(166 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα). [English version] [1] Gattin des eleusinischen Königs Keleos Gattin des eleusinischen Königs Keleos (nach schol. Eur. Or. 964 des Hippothoon), Mutter des Demophon [1] und mehrerer Töchter. M. nimmt die nach Persephone suchende Demeter in ihrem Haus auf und vertraut ihr den kleinen Demophon an. Sie stört aber unwissentlich die Göttin bei dem Versuch, das Kind im Feuer unsterblich zu machen, worauf sich Demeter von ihm zurückzieht (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fast. 4,507ff., wo M. und Keleos einfac…

Darlehen

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Als vertragliche Leistung, bei der der Empfänger von Geld oder anderen vertretbaren Sachen zur Rückgabe bzw. Gegenleistung verpflichtet wird, ist das D. in Mesopotamien von der Mitte des 3. Jt.v.Chr. [1. 141-145] bis in hell. Zeit [2. 43-45; 3. 119] bezeugt [4. 189-203]. Als Gläubiger traten sowohl Privatpersonen als auch (Vertreter von) Institutionen (Tempel, Palast) in Erscheinung. Gegenstand des D. waren vor allem Silber und Gerste, daneben auch andere Metalle bzw…

Eukrates

(113 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Stratege 432/1 v.Chr. Athenischer Stratege im J. 432/1 v.Chr. (IG I3 365.5), beteiligt an einem Feldzug nach Makedonien. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] Chorege und Stratege in Athen um 415 v. Chr. Chorege und Stratege in Athen. Bruder des Nikias. 415 v.Chr. wegen des Hermenfrevels angezeigt, aber wieder freigelassen (And. 1,47; 66). 412/1 als Stratege in Thrakien. 405/4 erneut Stratege, widersetzte er sich während der Blockade Athens mit anderen Strategen den von Theramenes …

Pasion

(358 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων). [English version] [1] Griech. Söldneranführer (Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr.) P. aus Megara führte eine Söldnereinheit zu Kyros [3] nach Sardeis (Xen. an. 1,2,3), setzte sich dann aber zusammen mit dem Söldnerführer Xenias in Myriandos unter ungeklärten Umständen vom Heer des Kyros ab (ebd. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Köln) [English version] [2] Freigelassener aus Athen, 4. Jh. In der Person des P. ist die geschäftliche Tätigkeit eines trapezítēs in Athen gut faßbar; ursprünglich war P. Sklave von Antisthenes und Archestratos; nach seiner Freil…

Dikaiogenes

(114 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δικαιογένης). [English version] [1] Athener, Trierarch von Paralos, fiel 412 / 1 v. Chr. Athener aus reicher und angesehener Familie (Davies, 145-149 Taf. II). Als Trierarch der Staatstriere Paralos fiel er 412/11 v.Chr. bei Knidos. Um sein testamentarisch vermachtes Vermögen wurde 389 ein Rechtsstreit ausgetragen (Isaios, or. 5). Traill, PAA 324245. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] aus Athen Tragödien- und Dithyrambendichter, 4. Jh. v. Chr. (?), Tragödien- und Dithyrambendichter. Im 4. Jh.v.Chr. Sieg an den ländlichen Dionysien im Demos Ac…

Charikles

(176 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρικλῆς). [English version] [1] Athenischer Politiker, Ende 5. Jh. v.Chr. Athener aus der Phyle Oineis, Sohn des Apollodoros. Als Demokrat untersuchte er 415 v.Chr. mit Peisandros den Hermokopidenfrevel (And. 1,36) und war 414/13 Strategos der Peloponneskampagne (Thuk. 7,20;26; Diod. 13,9,2). Folgte aber Peisandros im J. 411 zu den “Vierhundert” (Lys. 13,73f.). Im J. 404 bei den oligarchischen “Dreißig” bedeutend (Xen. hell. 2,3,2; mem. 1,2,31; And. 1,101; Aristot. pol. 1305b26); wird 403 verbannt und kehrt später zurück (Isokr. or. 16,42; PA 15407). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterbo…

Diomedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Διομέδων). [English version] [1] Kommandant Antiochos' III. Floh als Antiochos' III. Kommandant von Seleukeia am Tigris vor dem anrückenden aufständischen Satrapen von Medien, Molon (Pol. 5,48,12). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [English version] [2] Athenischer Feldherr im Peloponnesischen Krieg Athenischer Feldherr im Peloponnesischen Krieg. Als Stratege führte er 412/11 v.Chr. den athenischen Streitkräften in Kleinasien Verstärkung zu, gewann mit Leon das abgefallene Lesbos zurück und siegte über die Rhodier (Thuk. 8,19,2; 23f.; 5…

Kleophon

(205 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν). [English version] [1] Athenischer Demagoge in der Zeit nach 411 v.Chr Athenischer Demagoge in der Zeit nach 411 v.Chr., Leiermacher, offenbar nicht sehr vermögend (Lys. 19,48). K. führte 410 die diobelía , eine Unterhaltszahlung an bedürftige Bürger, ein ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 28,3). Nach Diodor (13,53,2) erwirkte er 410/409, nach [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 34,1 im J. 406/5 die Ablehnung von Friedensverhandlungen mit Sparta, doch könnten dies Dubletten seiner Maßnahmen 405/4 sein, als er im blockierte…

Phormion

(229 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Köln)
(Φορμίων). [English version] [1] Athen. Stratege (Mitte 5. Jh. v. Chr.) Athenischer stratēgós , kommandierte 440/439 v.Chr. eine Flotte gegen Samos (Thuk. 1,117,2). Gegen das von Ambrakioten gehaltene amphilochische Argos führte er 30 Schiffe zur Unterstützung der Amphilochoi und Akarnanes, die die Stadt fortan besiedelten. Athener und Akarnanes schlossen eine Symmachie (Thuk. 2,68,7f.). Mit einem athen. Heer betrieb Ph. 432 von Land aus die Belagerung Poteidaias (Thuk. 1,64,2; 65,2; 2,…

Athenodoros

(332 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Konstanz)
(Ἀθηνόδωρος). [English version] [1] athen. Söldnerführer, um 360 v. Chr. in persischen Diensten Söldnerführer, aus der athenischen Kleruchie Imbros. Um 360 v.Chr. in persischen Diensten, dann im Dienst des Thrakerkönigs Berisades, mit dem er sich verschwägerte. Im Kampf um die Herrschaft in Thrakien konnte A. für die verbündeten Berisades und Amadokos die Athener als Symmachoi gegen Kersebleptes gewinnen. Dadurch gelang es dem athenischen Strategen Chares 357/6, die Teilung der Herrschaft in Thrakien und den…

Athenodoros

(368 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀθηνόδωρος; Athēnódōros). [German version] [1] Mercenary commander, in Persian service around 360 BC Mercenary commander, from the Athenian cleruchy Imbrus. In Persian service around 360 BC, then in the service of the Thracian king  Berisades, to whom he became related by marriage. In the battle for the rulership in Thrace, A. won for the allied Berisades and  Amadocus the Athenians as symmachoi against  Cersebleptes. Because of this, the Athenian strategos Chares was able to secure the division of the rulership in Thrace as well as the Athenian possessions on the Chersonesus by treaty in 357/6 (Dem. Or. 23,170-173; IG II2 126; Stv 303). The city Cius bestowed honorary rights on A. (I. Cius 2). Taken prisoner during the taking of Sardes by Alexander in 334, A. was released at the intercession of Phocion. Traill PAA 110950. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) …

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). …

Leogoras

(365 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας; Leōgóras). [German version] [1] Father of the orator Andocides [1], 5th cent. BC Father of the orator Andocides [1], member of an old Athenian noble family, tracing its roots back to Telemachus and Hermes and linked by marriage to the Alcmaeonids (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. was mocked by Aristophanes [3] because of his debauched and profligate way of life. In 426/5 BC he led a legation to the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (IG I3 61, l. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). In 4…

Cleophon

(216 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλεοφῶν; Kleophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC Athenian demagogue in the period after 411 BC, lyre-maker, apparently…

Theomnestus

(215 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεόμνηστος/ Theómnēstos). [German version] [1] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian, accused by Lysitheus of cowardice after the battle of Corinthus (in 394 BC) in an action of dokimasia ( epangelía dokimasías) or 'scrutiny'. By being convicted T. was unable to appear as a rhetor in the People's Assembly, but managed to have the verdict quashed by means of an action for false witness against Dionysius. Against a renewed accusation of cowardice raised by Theon T. proceeded with an action of defamation (

Thymochares

(148 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θυμοχάρης/ Thymochárēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, naval commander, c. 400 BC Athenian, strategos of a fleet defeated by Agesandridas at Eretria [1] in 411/10 BC (Thuc. 8,95). T. was also defeat…

Charicles

(186 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρικλῆς; Chariklês). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, late 5th cent. BC Athenian from the phyle of Oeneis; son of Apollodorus. As a democrat in 415 BC he investigated the Mutilation of the Herms with Peisander (Andoc. 1,36), and in 414/13 was strategos

Sophocles

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Σοφοκλῆς/ Sophoklês). [German version] [1] Attic tragedian, 5th cent. BC The 5th cent. BC Attic tragedian Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Life Attischer Tragiker des 5. Jh. v. Chr. The most important records are the vita which has survived in several manuscripts and the Suda (σ 815); the complete testimonies have been collected in TrGF, vol. 4. S. was born in 497/6 BC as the son of Sophilus from the Attic deme of Colonus. In 480 he is said to have intoned the paean at the victory celebrations after the b…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again st…

Dicaeogenes

(123 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δικαιογένης; Dikaiogénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, trierarch of the Paralos, feel in 412/11 BC Athenian from a wealthy and respected family (Davies, 145-149 pl. II). When trierarch of the state trireme Paralos he fell at Cnidus in 412/11 BC. An action was brought in 389 concerning the testamentary disposal of his wealth (Isaeus, Or. 5). Traill, PAA 324245. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian and dithyrambic poet (?), tragedian and dithyrambic poet. In the 4th cent. BC victor at the rural Dionysia in the deme of Acharnae in the tragic or dithyramb class (DID B 6). Surviving titles are Mḗdeia and Kýprioi, for which Aristot. Poet. 1554b 37ff. records an anagnorisis διὰ μνήμης. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography TrGF 52.

Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possibly the same as M., the great-grandson of the Alcmaeonid Megacles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825 Traill, PAA 639290. [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Andocides, 400 B.C. Athenian; along …

Phormio

(259 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Φορμίων;

Loan

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient …

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his manumission he took over the bank of his former masters, perhaps first as tenant, then as owner (Dem. Or. 36,43). In 394/93 BC, P., now a métoikos , was taken to court for the restitution of a deposit (Isoc. Or. 17; cf. also Dem. Or. 52). His many business and social connections, e.g. with the stratēgós Timotheus and the father of Demosthenes [2], made him one of…

Diomedon

(191 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Διομέδων; Diomédōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Antiochus III As the commander of Seleucia on the Tigris under Antiochus III, he fled from Molon, the advancing rebel satrap of Media (Pol. 5,48,12). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. As strategos, he brought reinforcements to the Athenian troops in Asia Minor in 412-11 BC, regained control over seceding Lesbos together with Leon, and was victorious against th…

Metaneira

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα; Metáneira). [German version] [1] Wife of the Eleusinian king Keleos Wife of the Eleusinian king Celeus (according to schol. Eur. Or. 964 of Hippothoon), mother of Demophon [1] and of several daughters. Metaneira takes Demeter, who is looking for Persephone, into her house and entrusts her little son, Demophon, to her care. However she unwittingly disturbs the goddess who is trying to make the child immortal in the fire, and Demeter pulls away from him (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fas…

Timagoras

(184 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Τιμαγόρας/ Timagóras). [German version] [1] Greek painter and poet from Chalcis, c. 450 BC Greek Classical period painter and poet (?) from Chalcis; known only from Plin. HN 35,58, who gives an account of a painting competition during the Pythian Games in Delphi ( c. 450-440 BC), which T. won against Panaenus. The scale and appearance of his works are unknown. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) …

Dracontides

(167 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης; Drakontídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander in the Peloponnesian War …

Kleandros

(275 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος). [English version] [1] K. aus Gela Begründete 505 v. Chr. die Tyrannis in Gela Sohn des Pantares. K. begründete ca. 505 v.Chr. die Tyrannis in Gela und fiel nach siebenjähriger Regierung einem Mordanschlag zum Opfer. K. schuf die Voraussetzungen für den Aufstieg Gelas unter seinem Bruder und Nachfolger Hippokrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758  H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [English version] [2] Spartanischer Befehlshaber in Byzantion um 400 v. Chr. Spartanischer B…

Hermon

(445 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[English version] [1] Bergmassiv Bergmassiv (maximale Höhe 2814 m) im Süden des Antilibanon; hebr. Ḥærmôn (von ḥrm “Bann, Tabu”), griech. Ἀερμών, lat. Hermon, modern

Perses

(334 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης). [English version] [1] Sohn des Titanen Krios und der Eurybeia (oder Persaios : Hom. h. 2,24). Sohn des Titanen Krios [1] und der Eurybeia, Bruder des Astraios und des Pallas (Hes. theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), Gatte der Asteria [2], Vater der Hekate (Hes. theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, S…

Konon

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων). [English version] [1] Athener, ab 411/10 v. Chr. mehrfach strategós Athener, 413 v.Chr. Befehlshaber in Naupaktos, von 411/10 an mehrfach stratēgós. K. wurde 406 von der peloponnes. Flotte im Hafen von Mytilene eingeschlossen, wobei er 30 Schiffe verlor (Xen. hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. 13,77-79). Durch Athens Sieg bei den Arginusai wurde er befreit. Da er an der Schlacht nicht teilgenommen hatte, wurde er nicht wie die anderen Feldherrn abgesetzt und zum Tode verurteilt (…

Pythodoros

(455 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος). [English version] [1] Athener, 411 v. Chr. Wegbereiter der oligarchischen Verfassung der 400 Athener, stellte nach [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 29,1-2 (vgl. Thuk. 8,67,1) im J. 411 v. Chr. in der Volksversammlung den Antrag, weitere 20 “Vorberater” ( próbuloi) zu wählen, die Vorschläge zur Rettung des Staates ausarbeiten sollten. Er bereitete damit den Weg für die oligarchische Verfassung der 400 (

Polystratos

(367 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος). [English version] [1] Begüterter Athener, Ratsherr 411 v. Chr. Begüterter Athener, bekleidet…

Alkimenes

(269 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης). [English version] [1] Bruder des Bellerophontes Bruder des Bellerophontes, auch Peiren oder Deliades, wurde von seinem Bruder getötet, was Anlaß der Flucht nach Argos war (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lykophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Sohn Iasons und Medeias Sohn des Iason und der Medeia, Bruder des Teisandros, die beide in Korinth von Medeia getötet wurden; nur Thettalos, der Zwillingsbruder des A., entkam. Die beiden sind im Temenos der Hera begraben und wurden als Heroen verehrt (Diod. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Graf,…
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