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Exodos

(280 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἔξοδος, generally ‘departure’, ‘end’). According to Aristot. Poet. 1452b 21f., the exodos is the part of a tragedy which is not followed by a chorus ( Stasimon) (concluding act). Moving from this broad definition, it probably makes more sense to define the exodos in a narrower sense as the exit of the chorus at the end of a drama (cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 582). The most frequent form in tragedy is the ‘ ecce conclusion’: the deed and the doer are presented in a pathos-laden concluding scene (initially usually indirectly by means of a messenger's report […

Katharsis

(608 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ κάθαρσις; hē kátharsis). Katharsis, derived from καθαίρειν ( kathaírein, purge), generally means any type of purgation and elimination of visible (dirt) and invisible uncleanliness (religious defilement: míasma, cf. Hdt. 1,35; Aristot. Poet. 17,1455b 15). In the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC the term was used as medical term for the removal of harmful substances from the human body or soul (LSJ, s.v. κ. II). The cultic-ritual and medical-psychological meanings have merged in Aristotle's concept of katharsis, which of old has been a matter of scholarly con…

Mesatus

(23 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Greek tragedian, who enjoyed success at the Dionysia several times after 468 BC (TrGF I 11). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Morychus

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Tragedian from the closing years of the 5th cent. BC; according to the scholia on Aristophanes he was known for his gluttony (TrGF I 30 T 1-3). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Polychares

(21 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πολυχάρης/ Polychárēs). Early 4th cent. BC poet, uncertain whether of tragedy or dithyramb (DID B 6). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Polites

(156 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολίτης/ Polítēs). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus Son of the Trojan king Priamus and Hecabe. During the Trojan War, he saves his wounded brother Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,533 ff.). The goddess Iris appears once in his guise (ibid. 2,786 ff.). He is killed at the altar in the palace of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,526 ff.). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 54 HRR), he reaches Latium with Aeneas (Aeneas [1]) and founds the city of Politorium. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Companion of Odysseus According to Paus. 6,6,7 ff., one of the companions of Odysseus; r…

Sclerias

(49 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σκληρίας/ Sklērías) or Sclerius (Σκλήριος/ Sklḗrios), tragic poet cited by Stobaeus (TrGF I 213), dates unknown. It is unlikely that the Skolion (PMG 890) which only Stobaeus ascribes to S. (TrGF I 213 F 5) is in fact by him (testimonies in PMG 651). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Timesitheus

(44 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian (Τιμησίθεος; Timēsítheos). Greek tragedian, mentioned in the Suda (τ 613), not datable. According to Suda τ 613, author of 11 tragedies (TrGF I 214). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] see Furius [II 5] see Furius [II 5]

Cleaenetus

(50 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Κλεαίνετος; Kleaínetos). Tragedian (TrGF I 84), won the 3rd place at the Lenaeans in 363 BC; mocked by  Alexis as not exacting (Fr. 268 PCG), by  Philodemus (84 T 3 TrGF I) as a worse poet than Euripides. ‘Hypsipyle’ is attested as a title. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Theodorides

(35 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θεοδωρίδης; TheodōrÍdēs). Greek tragedian (TrGF I 78 A), took second place at the Athenian Lenaea in 363 BC with a Medea and a Phaethon (DID A 2b, 94). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Morsimus

(50 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μόρσιμος; Mόrsimos). Son of Philocles, great-nephew of Aeschylus [1] (TrGF I 12 T 3), middle of the 5th cent. BC, oculist (TrGF I 29 T 2) and tragedian, the latter according to Aristophanes (Equ. 401, Pax 802, Ran. 151) of particularly poor quality. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Theatre

(2,540 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A.Late Antiquity/ Middle Ages (CT) There is, to be sure, evidence for the existence of sporadic performances of Greek tragedies up into 4th cent. AD and plays by Plautus and Terence continued to be performed as late as the 3rd/4th. cents., but on the whole, tragedies and comedies had largely disappeared from the theatre programme of the Roman Imperial Age. The stage of that age, however, was not devoid of dramatic, sub-literary genres [5]. They included mimes, pantomimes and the fabulae cantatae, i.e. tragic isolated scenes perfor…

Polyphrasmon

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πολυφράσμων/ Polyphrásmōn). Son of Phrynichus [1], tragedian, first victory between 482 and 471 (DID A 3a, 13), successful at the Dionysia in 471  (DID A 1, 22). In 467 he is recorded as third to Aeschylus [1], who won with his Theban trilogy, and Pratinas' son Aristias [2] with his trilogy Lykourgeia (TrGF I 7). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Stichomythia

(484 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (στιχομυθία/ stichomythía). A form of dialogue in ancient drama in which two persons - or, more rarely, three -  speak in regular turns. It was first documented as a technical term in Poll. 4,113, but a description of the dramatic technique of 'dialogue intensification' [6] appears as early as in Aeschylos [1] (Eum. 585 f.). The origins of stichomythia are unknown (initiation rites: [8. 201], folk customs: [2. 95-106]). Under the general heading of the technique of stichomythia, sc…

Rhesis

(452 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ ῥῆσις/ hē rhêsis), generally 'speech' (Hom. Od. 21,291). As early as the 5th cent. BC, rhesis was a technical term for a speech in a play, especially in a tragedy (for the concept cf. Aristoph. Ach. 416, Nub. 1371, Vesp. 580, Ran. 151; Aristot. Poet. 1454a 31, 1456a 31). The length of a rhesis varies from c. 7 to over 100 verses (Eur. Ion 1122-1228, Phoen. 1090-1199, Bacch. 1043-1152). The most important function of rhḗseis in the context of the storyline is to supply information. The requisite details which are important for the storyline are frequen…

Phanostratus

(27 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φανόστρατος; Phanóstratos) of Halicarnassus. Tragedian, probably successful at the Attic Lenaea in 306 BC. TrGF I 94 = DID B7. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Neophron

(158 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Νεόφρων; Neóphrōn) of Sicyon. Tragedian, 2nd half of 5th cent. BC; according to the Suda (TrGF I 15 T 1) the author of 120 plays, and the first to depict tutors and the torture of slaves on the stage. According to the hypothesis of Euripides' [1] ‘Medea arising from the Peripatetic tradition, the Euripidean drama is said to have derived from N. The 24 surviving verses show clear concordances with Euripides (esp. Medea's monologue in N. fragment 2, cf. Eur. Med. 1021ff., 1236ff.); …

Stasimon

(504 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ στάσιμον /tò stásimon; derived from the adjective stásimos, 'standing'). In the list of structural forms (μέρη/ mérē) of the tragedy (I.), Aristotle (Poet. 1452b 22-24) distinguishes - among the chorus parts - the párodos from the stasima, which he defines as chorus songs that have no anapest or trochee, thus no recited verses, which are used primarily in the parodos [1]. The term stasimon must not be understood in the sense that the chorus was 'standing' while it sang the song, rather that the chorus performed i…

Trilogy

(41 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ τριλογία/ hē trilogía). From Hellenistic philology onwards a term for three tragedies, without the concluding satyr play, performed during the Great Dionysia at Athens (cf. Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 1124) [1. 80]. Tetralogy; Tragedy I. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography 1 Pickard-Cambridge/Gould/Lewis.

Pleias

(125 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πλειάς/ Pleiás). The 'Constellation of Seven' Greek tragic poets during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Ptolemaeus [I 3] II Philadelphus) (285-246 BC). The list of names varies (as with those of the Seven Sages and the Seven Wonders of the World); certain are: Alexander [21] Aetolus, Lycophron [5] of Chalcis, Homerus [2] of Byzantium,  Philicus of Corcyra and Sositheus of Alexandria; also mentioned are: Sosiphanes [2] of Syracuse, Aeantides, Dionysiades of Tarsus and Euphronius…

Sositheus

(117 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σωσίθεος/ Sōsítheos) from Alexandria [2] in the Troad, Satyr playwright and tragedian of the Pleias, first half of the 3rd century BC (TrGF I 99). According to the Suda (σ 860) he is also supposed to have written poetry and prose (T 1). In a fictitious burial epigram Dioscurides [3] (Anth. Pal. 7,707 = T 2) praises him as a reviver of the satyr play, taking his direction from Pratinas. 24 verses survive from Daphnis or Lityerses, presumably a satyr play, about the love of Daphnis and the nymph Thalia, their being taken prisoner by Lityerses and presumabl…

Anagnorisis

(546 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (also anagnorismos: ἡ ἀναγνώρισις, ὁ ἀναγνωρισμός; hē anagnṓrisis, ho anagnōrismós). According to Aristot. Poet. 11,1452a-b, anagnorisis is the technical term for the ‘Recognition’ in drama. Aristotle defined anagnorisis as a transition from unknowing into knowing, with the effect that friendship is changed into enmity and vice versa. To him, that anagnorisis is the most dramatic, which occurs simultaneously with   peripeteia . Aristotle differentiated three varieties of anagnorisis with reference to the object: the recognition of persons, of ina…

Philoxenides

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φιλοξενίδης; Philoxenídēs) from Oropos, writer of satyr plays; after 85 BC he achieved success at the Amphiaraea and Romaea festivals in Oropus (TrGF I 170). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Monologue

(604 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] ‘Soliloquy’ (the term ‘monologue’ is not of ancient origin; it was only Augustinus who coined the term soliloquium, cf. Aug. retract. 1,4,1), special form of speech ( rhḗsis ) found in various literary genres. In distinguishing monologue in its proper sense from other forms of rhḗseis, such as a messenger's report (messenger scenes), the criterion should not be the length of the monologue, but only the communication situation [4. 180 f.]: the solitude or isolation of the speaker, who is not addressing his speech to a listene…

Zotion

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ζωτίων; Zōtíōn) from Ephesus. Only the name of this Greek tragic poet from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC is recorded (TrGF I 133). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Peripeteia

(187 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ περιπέτεια/ hē peripéteia). Literally 'turn-about, reversal' of a situation, mostly of fate, often unexpected and as a rule from good to bad (e.g. Aristot. Rhet. 1371b 10). The concept is central to Aristotle's Poetics (Poet. 11,1452a 22-29), where P. is defined as the reversal of what was to be achieved into its opposite. This should happen by probability (κατὰ τὸ εἰκός) or by necessity (κατὰ τὸ ἀναγκαῖον). Together with  anagnorisis P. is a characteristic of complex narrative structures ('plots', μῦθοι πεπλεγ…

Dithyramb

(963 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ὁ διθύραμβος; dithýrambos). Choral song in honour of  Dionysus. The origin and meaning of this term has caused much speculation since ancient times. The word itself is certainly not a Greek, perhaps a Phrygian composition; most likely from a combination of íambos (ἴαμβος; two-step) and thríambos (θρίαμβος; three-step) [1]. In a contested passage of his Poetics (Aristot. Poet. 4,1449a 10-13) Aristotle makes the dithyramb the harbinger of tragedy ─ or, say others [2], of comedy. Three phases can be distinguished in the history of the genre: the pre-litera…

Tetralogy

(245 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (ἡ τετραλογία/ hē tetralogía). Originally a technical term in rhetoric to describe four speeches treating the same case from different perspectives (Antiphon [4] A.), later also used to summarize the Platonic dialogues in groups of four (Diog. Laert. 3,57; Plato [1] C. 1. - 2.). Since the Hellenistic era, philology has used the term primarily for four theatre pieces connected by content: three tragedies (Trilogy) and one satyr play [2. 80 f.]. The 'originator' of the tetralogy was probably Aeschylus [1]; his Oresteia (458 BC) survives (without the satyr play)…

Monody

(365 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (μονῳδία; m onōidía). Monody and the verb μονῳδεῖν ( monōideîn) are found already in the 5th century BC as technical terms used to describe solo arias by actors in drama (Aristoph. Pax 1012; Aristoph. Thesm. 1077; Aristoph. Ran. 849; 944; 1330). Occasionally they are equated with Threnos, as a notable component of the arias, the complaint (see Aristoph. Vesp. 317-323), was transferred to the whole structural element, as is also the case with antiphonal songs (Kommos [2], Amoibaion). M. are the musical high points in the tragedies of Euripides [1] in particular. According…

Antiphellus

(182 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀντίφελλος; Antíphellos). Lycian harbour town, modern Kas̨; it may have originally been named Habesos (Plin. HN 5,100). In the 5th/4th cents. BC, A. belonged to  Phellus, was listed in Ps.-Scyl. 100 as πόλις καὶ λιμήν ( pólis kai limḗn, town and port), and, in the 2nd cent. BC, minted its own coins as an independent polis within the Lycian Confederacy [1; 2]. Municipal offices and institutions reveal Rhodian influence, originating from the Rhod…

Amoibaion

(495 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Generally antiphonal singing (Theoc. 8,31), also dialogue in tragedy (Pl. Resp. 394b), today terminologically established as antiphonal singing in the drama. In the listing of the components of the tragedy in ‘Poetics’ (12,1452b 22) Aristotle differentiates songs for the stage (τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς) and kommoi as special cases. Whereas in the first instance only the actors are involved (monodies, duets), with the kommoi the collaboration of actors and chorus is decisive. As, however, not all antiphonal singing between choir and actor(s) can be d…

Epiparodos

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] The return of the chorus after it had left the orchestra during the performance of a play (μετάστασις χοροῦ; metástasis choroû, cf. Poll. 4,108), as in: Aesch. Eum. 231, 244; Soph. Aj. 814, 866 ; Eur. Alc. 746, 861, Hel. 385, 515, Rhes. 564, 674 ; Aristoph. Eccl. 310, 478.  Parodos Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography O. Taplin, The Stagecraft of Aeschylus, 1977, 377-381.

Epeisodion

(118 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ ἐπεισόδιον; tó epeisódion, from the adjective ἐπεισόδιος; epeisódios, ‘inserted’). According to Aristot. Poet. 12,1452b 20f. part of a tragedy between two entire chorus parts (that is between the  parodos and the first   stasimon or between two stasima). The term epeisodion is found as a technical term only in the Poetica, other authors speak of a méros or mórion. Aristotle also uses the terminus epeisodion in the Poetica in a more general sense for ‘section’, ‘episode’ (e.g. 17,1455b 13 Aristot. Poet. 17,1455b 2.15.18.27.). In the Old Comedy,…

Pratinas

(743 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πρατίνας/ Pratínas) of Phlius (in the Peloponnese), according to the Suda π 2230 (TrGF I 4 T 1) the inventor of the satyr play; son of a Pyrrhonides or Encomius (descriptive names: son of a 'red-head' or of 'a member of a - Dionysian - komos'; on the red hair and beards of satyrs cf. Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 7,707,3 and  Soph. Ichn. 358). Two dates are attested for his life: between 499 and 496 he entered a tragedic agon against Aeschylus [1] and Choerilus [2] (T 1); and 467 is a  terminus ante quem for his death: that year his son Aristias [2] entered with plays by P. ('…

Drama

(418 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] Abgeleitet von dem vorwiegend im Att. belegten Verb δρᾶν ist das Subst. τὸ δρᾶμα (“Handlung”, “Tat” im allg. Sinne) dem “Leid” (πάθος/ páthos) entgegengesetzt (Aischyl. Ag. 533); ferner kann es “Pflicht”, “Aufgabe” bedeuten (Plat. Tht. 150a, rep. 451cPlat. rep. 451c). Vorwiegend jedoch bedeutet D. als t.t. “Theaterstück” (Trag., Komödie, Satyrspiel) im Hinblick auf seine Aufführung (Aristoph. Ran. 920); als Stücktitel im Pl. erscheint D. in Aristophanes' Δράματα ἢ Νίοβος ( Drā́mata ē Níobos; fr. 289-298 PCG III2; fr. 299-304 PCG III2), bei Telekleides fr. 41…

Deus ex machina

(379 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Θεὸς ἀπὸ μηχανῆς). Bereits im 4. Jh.v.Chr. sprichwörtlich gewordene kranartige Bühnenmaschine (μηχανή, γέρανος, κράδη), an der schwebend und die Luft durchquerend eine Gottheit plötzlich erscheinen und der Handlung neue Impulse verleihen oder sie zu Ende bringen konnte (vgl. Plat. Kleit. 407a; Krat. 425d; Antiphanes 189,13-16 PCG; Alexis 131,9 PCG; Men. Theophorumene fr. 5 Sandbach = 227 Körte; Cic. nat. deor. 1,53). Ihr Einsatz ist durch die Parodien des Aristophanes (Pax 174ff…

Philikos

(103 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Φίλικος) von Kerkyra (Korfu). Dichter und Tragiker, Dionysospriester in Alexandreia z.Z. Ptolemaios' II. Philadelphos (285-246 v.Chr.). Mitglied der Pleias, oft mit Philiskos [4] von Aigina (TrGF I 89) verwechselt (TrGF I 104 T1, T4). Von den ihm zugeschriebenen 24 Tragödien ist nichts erhalten. Von einem Demeter-Hymnos in stichischen katalektischen choriambischen Hexametern ist eine große Partie überl. (SH 676-680), in der Demeter über den Verlust der Tochter mit der Aussicht a…

Peripetie

(185 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (ἡ περιπέτεια). Wörtl. “Umschwung”, “Umkehrung” der Situation, zumeist des Schicksals, häufig unerwartet und in der Regel vom Guten zum Schlechten (z.B. Aristot. rhet. 1371b 10). Zentral ist der Begriff in der ‘Poetik des Aristoteles (poet. 11,1452a 22-29), wo P. als der Umschlag dessen, was erreicht werden sollte, in sein Gegenteil definiert wird, wobei dies nach Wahrscheinlichkeit (κατὰ τὸ εἰκός) oder Notwendigkeit (κατὰ τὸ ἀναγκαῖον) geschehen müsse. P. ist zusammen mit der Anagnorisis ein Charakteristikum von komplexen Handlungsstrukturen ( plots; μῦθο…

Botenszenen

(540 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] Längere Rhesis im Drama, in der den anderen Personen oder dem Chor hinter- oder außerszenische, vor oder während der dramatischen Handlung geschehene Ereignisse, die nach den Möglichkeiten oder Konventionen des att. Theaters nicht darstellbar sind, mitgeteilt werden. Diese nach allen Mitteln der Rhet. ausgestatteten Berichte werden entweder von einer Haupt- oder Nebenfigur (Eur. Heraclid. 389ff; Soph. El. 680ff.), sehr häufig jedoch von eigens zu diesem Zweck eingeführten, namenl…

Katharsis

(572 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (ἡ κάθαρσις). Allg. bedeutet K., abgeleitet von καθαίρειν ( kathaírein, “reinigen”), jede Art von Reinigung und Beseitigung von sichtbarer (Schmutz) wie unsichtbarer Unreinheit (rel. Besudelung: míasma, vgl. Hdt. 1,35; Aristot. poet. 17,1455b 15). In der 2. H. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. wurde der Begriff als med. t.t. für die Entfernung von schädlichen Stoffen aus dem menschlichen Körper oder der Seele verwendet (LSJ, s.v. κ. II). Die kult.-rituelle und med.-psychologische Bed. fließen zusammen in dem in der Forsch. seit …

Epeisodion

(108 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (τὸ ἐπεισόδιον, von dem Adj. ἐπεισόδιος, “eingeschoben”). Nach Aristot. poet. 12,1452b 20f. Teil einer Trag., der zw. zwei ganzen Chorpartien (d.h. zw. Parodos und erstem Stasimon oder zw. zwei Stasima) steht. Der Begriff E. findet sich als t.t. nur in der Poetica, andere Autoren sprechen von méros oder mórion. Aristoteles verwendet den Terminus E. in der Poetica auch im allgemeineren Sinn für “Abschnitt”, “Episode” (z.B. 17,1455b 13Aristot. poet. 17,1455b 2.15.18.27.). In der Alten Komödie läßt sich oft der zweite Teil der Stücke in …

Nothippos

(28 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Νόθιππος). Athen. Tragiker (TrGF I 26), von dem Komiker Hermippos in den Moírai (aufgeführt wohl 430 v.Chr.) erwähnt (Fr. 46 PCG). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Neophron

(145 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Νεόφρων) aus Sikyon. Tragiker, 2. H. 5. Jh. v.Chr., nach der Suda (TrGF I 15 T 1) Verf. von 120 Stücken, der als erster Pädagogen und die Folterung von Sklaven auf die Bühne gebracht haben soll. Nach der auf peripatetischer Trad. beruhenden Hypothesis zu Euripides' [1] ‘Medea soll das euripideische Drama von N. abhängig sein. Die erh. 24 Verse weisen deutliche Übereinstimmungen mit Euripides auf (bes. Medeas Monolog bei N., Fr. 2 mit Eur. Med. 1021ff., 1236ff.), die Priorität is…

Parodos

(410 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (ἡ πάροδος, wörtl. “Einzug, Einzugslied des Chors”). In seiner Aufzählung der allen Tragödien gemeinsamen Bauteile definiert Aristoteles [6] in der ‘Poetik (12, 1452 b22f.) die p. als erste Chorpartie, wobei die Bedeutung “Einzugslied” bzw. “-vortrag” (vgl. Aristot. eth. Nic. 1123 a23f.) mitklingt. Bei der Strukturanalyse sollte man sich jedoch nicht an starre, schematische Abgrenzungen halten, sondern die Konstruktion und Entwicklung der dramatischen Handlung (σύστασις τῶν πραγμάτων, ebd.) beachten. In der att. Tragödie kann die p. das Stück eröffnen …

Mnesilochos

(103 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μνησίλοχος). [English version] [1] s. Mnasilochos s. Mnasilochos Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [English version] [2] Schwiegervater des Euripides Schwiegervater des Euripides [1] aus dem Demos Phlya. Der Name der Tochter schwankt in der Überl. zw. Choirile und Melito. In der Hypothesis zu Aristophanes' ‘Thesmophoriazusen wird der kēdēstḗs (naher Verwandter) des Eupolis fälschlicherweise mit M. gleichgesetzt (auch in der Hs. R). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Euripides, Herakles I 1895, 7. [English version] [3] zweiter S…

Morsimos

(43 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[English version] (Μόρσιμος). Sohn des Philokles, Großneffe des Aischylos [1] (TrGF I 12 T 3), Mitte 5. Jh.v.Chr.; Augenarzt (TrGF I 29 T 2) und Tragiker, letzteres nach Aristophanes (Equ. 401, Pax 802, Ran. 151) von bes. schlechter Qualität. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Prologue

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(ὁ πρόλογος/ ho prólogos, Lat. prologus, prologium). [German version] A. Concept In his list of the individual elements (μέρη/ mérē) of tragedy in the 'Poetics', Aristotle defines the prologue as a complete section of a tragedy preceding the chorus' párodos (Aristot. Poet. 13,1452b 22 f.) [9. 471 f.]. However, the term prólogos was already in use in the technical sense before Aristotle: in 'The Frogs', Aristophanes subtitles the prologue the 'first part of a tragedy' (Aristoph. Ran. 1120: τὸ πρῶτον τῆς τραγῳδίας μέρος/ tò prôton tês tragōidías méros), which, however, can have ref…

Drama

(450 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Derived from the verb δρᾶν ( drân), predominantly attested in Attic, the noun δρᾶμα ( drâma; ‘action’, ‘deed’ in a general sense) is the antonym of ‘what is experienced’ (πάθος/ páthos) (Aesch. Ag. 533); it can also mean ‘duty’, ‘task’ (Pl. Tht. 150a, Resp. 451c ). For the most part, though, drama is a technical term meaning ‘theatrical play’ (tragedy, comedy, satyr play) in the context of its performance (Aristoph. Ran. 920); it appears in the plural form in the title of Aristophanes' play Δράματα ἢ Νίοβος ( Drā́mata ē Níobos; fr. 289-298 PCG III2; fr. 299-304 PCG III2), in T…

Euphantus

(61 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] of Olynthus (TrGF 1, 118; FGrH 74), end of the 4th, beginning of the 3rd cent. BC; according to Diog. Laert. 2,110 teacher of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, to whom he dedicated a work ‘On the Rule of Kings’ (Περὶ βασιλείας; Perì basileías). Writer of a history of the Diadochi period and of several successful tragedies. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Greek tragedy

(3,204 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] A. Antiquity and Middle Ages (CT) The following article is only concerned with the performance of plays by the three main Greek tragedians and the various tendencies of their productions in modern times. It is not possible in this context to deal with adaptations, new arrangements or reworkings, nor with the reception of Greek tragedy as a whole in the history of European cultural and intellectual history. The seminal year marking a decisive change in the practice of performing dramatic plays in Athens was 386 BC, bec…
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