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(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…


(88 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Town in Calabria (Plin. HN 3,105: Aezetini). Ἀζητινῶν on bronze coins of the 3rd cent. BC [1; 3. 99-116], Ezetium in Tab. Peut. 6,5, and Geogr. Rav. 4,35. Modern Castiello (near Rutigliano). Monuments: large wall ring of the 4th to 3rd cents. BC, graves and other archaeological remains dating from the 6th cent. BC to the 2nd/3rd cent. AD [2; 3. 13f., 66-72].  Peucetii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 HN 45 2 M. T. Giannotta, s.v. Castiello, BTCGI 5, 125- 127 3 Il territorio di Rutigliano in età antica, 1992.

Messapians, Messapia

(730 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιοι/ Messápioi, Μεσσαπία/ Messapía). A people and region in the extreme southeast of Italy. According to Str. 6,3,1; 6,3,5, these are Greek terms for the Iapyges and Iapygia, south of the isthmus between Taras/Tarentum and Brundisium (Str. 6,3,1; 5). Their indigenous name was partly Salentinoi (on the southern tip and the Ionian coast), partly Kalabroi. According to most sources, the terms designated all of southeastern Italy, including the Daunii (or Daunia), the Peucetii (or Peucetia), and the Iapyges or Iapygia (Pol. 3,88; …


(151 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] City of the Messapii and the Sallentini south-east of Taras (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μανδύριον; Manduris, Geogr. Rav. 4,31; 5,1; Amandrinum, Guido 72), with source (Plin. HN 2,226; [2; 5]). After siding with Carthage in 209 BC, it was reconquered by the Romans (Liv. 27,15,4: 3,000 prisoners and huge booty). The Spartan king Archidamus [2] fell at M. in 338 BC (Plut. Agis 3,2); modern Manduria. Finds of Messapian inscriptions [3; 5]; important archaeological remains: triple ring of walls (5th, …

Lucani, Lucania

(931 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Λευκανοί/ Leukanoí, Λευκανία/ Leukanía). Italian people and region in southern Italy (modern Basilicata), who descended from the Samnites (Str. 5,3,1; 6,1,2f.) and in the 5th cent. BC (after their migration under the mythological king Lamiscus, cf. Heraclides, Perì tôn en tôi Helládi póleōn [= Poleis] 20) mixed with the Oenotri (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 64-71; Hdt. 1,167; Antiochus FGrH 555 F 1-3) in the area south of the Silaris (modern Sele), where the latter had settled [6; 10; 16; 18]. Around 440 BC, battles with the Thurii …


(319 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] [1] City of the Sal(l)entini City of the Sal(l)entini, founded by Idomeneus [1] (Varro in Prob. in Verg. Ecl. 6,31), probably identical with Οὐερητόν/ Ouerētón (Str. 6,3,5: originally Barís; Ptol. 3,1,76; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Veretum) at Cape Leuca; modern Santa Maria di Vereto on the eastern coast of Italy with ancient remains; Messapian and Roman inscriptions [1; 2]. Str. 6,3,6 is unclear as to whether Hyrie at Hdt. 7,170 is to be identified with U. [1] or U. [2]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 C. Pagliara, Fonti per la storia di Veretum, in: Annali della F…


(102 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Ταισία; Taisía). City in Bruttium of unknown location near Rhegium (according to [2] near Motta San Giovanni, but cf. [1; 3. 267]). Station of Delphic theōrodókoi (SGDI 2580, Z. 88: 3rd/2nd century BC; [4]), presumably identical with the fortress of Tisia (App. Hann. 188; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τισία) or Isia (Diod. 37,2,13). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 E. Pais, Tisiae ed Isiae, in: id. (ed.), Italia antica, 1922, 111-122 2 C. Turano, T., in: Klearchos 13, 1971, 19-37 3 P. G. Guzzo, Le città scomparse della Magna Grecia, 1982 4 G. Manganaro, Città di Si…

Bruttii, Bruttium

(543 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Βρέττιοι; Bréttioi). Italian tribe of Lucanian descent (Str. 5,3,1; Just. Epit. 23,1; Diod. Sic. 16,15; the name is possibly of pre-Lucanian origin; equation with Βρέντιοι; Bréntioi impossible) in the region south of a line from Laus to Thurii (Str. 6,1,4); its settlement area is generally referred to as Bruttium. Apparently, B. was the Lucanian term for ‘slaves’ or ‘rebels’ (δραπέται, ἀποστάται): Diod. Sic. 16,15; Str. 6,1,4 [8. 29-53]. Prior to 357 BC, the B. lived in the Sila Forest as shepherds and c…


(336 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Indigenous name of the Messapians in the southernmost part of regio II, near the Cape of Iapygia (Cape Leuca) (Str. 6,3,1; cf. Mela 2,66; but Degrassi, FCap. XX: de Sallentineis Messapieisque). According to legend, the S. under Idomeneus [1] came with the Illyrii and the Locri [1] (Varro, Rust. 3,6; Verg. Aen. 3,400; Verrius Flaccus in Fest. 440; Solin. 2,10; cf. Str. 6,3,5: ápoikoi from Crete) from Lyctus to Italy, where the Cape of Iapygia was called Promunturium Sallentinum after them (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51; Serv. Aen. 3,400; cf. Tab. Peut. 7,2). In …


(231 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Mountains in Bruttium Heavily forested mountains in Bruttium (Str. 6,1,9; Plin. HN 3,74; Alfius in Fest. 150 L.; Verg. G. 219-223; Aen. 12,715-717), presumably corresponding to Aspromonte (Montalto, 1,956 m) and Serre in the south of Bruttium, but not to the modern S. [1; 3]. Abundant stock of timber, extraction of the prized Bruttian pitch ([1; 2]; Cic. Brut. 85; amphora stamp: Bruttia pix [2]). According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20,15, at the end of the war with Pyrrhus [3] the Bruttii (cf. Vibius Sequester, flumina 205: Sila Bruttiorum) ceded half of the S. to t…


(135 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] City in Bruttium (Cato HRR, fr. 71; Mela 2,4,68; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Tauriana; Plin. HN 3,73: Tauroentum) to the south of the Mataurus river on the border with Rhegium at modern Monte Traviano [1. 117-130]. It is unclear whether it is the inhabitants of T. [1. 126; 2] that are meant by the Tauriani who capitulated to the Romans in 213/2 BC (Liv. 25,1,2). Scanty archaeological remains [1. 118 f., 130-133]; inscriptions from the Bruttian (brick stamps) and Roman periods [1. 133-144; 3; 4. 255]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 S. Settis, Tauriana, in: RAL ser. 8a, vo…


(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…

Calabri, Calabria

(636 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] A. Definition South-eastern extension of the Italian peninsula (Str. 6,3,1: its name possibly of indigenous origin; [1; 2. 32], for different view [5]), modern Salento. Καλαβρία ( Kalabría) is first attested for Rhinto (Hsch. s.v. K.), c. 300 BC; according to Str. 6,3,5, most authors used Kalabría synonymously with Ἰαπυγία ( Iapygía), Μεσσαπία ( Messapía) and Σαλεντίνη ( Salentínē) for the peninsula south of the isthmus of Tarentum -- Brundisium. The earliest mention of the tribe of that region as Καλαβροί ( Kalaboí) in Pol. 10.1; in Roman triumphs (of 280, 2…

Iapyges, Iapygia

(735 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] People and region in the extreme south-east of Italy (modern Puglia). First mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 86f.) together with the unidentified settlements of Eleútioi (Ἐλεύτιοι), Peukaíoi (Πευκαῖοι, possibly equivalent to Πευκέτιοι; Peukétioi) and the pólis Chandánē (πόλις Χανδάνη). Hecataeus (loc. cit.) may also mean the I. with ‘town in Italia’ (πόλις ἐν τῆι Ἰταλίαι; pólis en tēi Italíai). According to Hdt. 4,99 the peninsula south of the isthmus between Tarentum and Brundisium was the acroterium of I. [7. 170-172]. Antiochus (FGrH 5…


(122 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] City of the  Sal(l)entini (Plin. HN 3,105: Aletini), today Alezio by Gallipoli, Ἀλητία ( Alētía) Str. 6,3,6, Ἀλήτιον ( Alḗtion) Ptol. 3,1,76, Baletium Tab. Peut. 7,2, Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Valentium Guidonis Geographia 29; 72 graves and other archaeological [1. 9-38, 165-174; 2] and epigraphical [1. 59-113, 215-263; 4; 5] evidence of the prehistoric, Messapian, Sallentine and Roman periods (up into the 5th cent. AD).  Messapii Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 Atti dell VIII Convegno dei Comuni messapici peuceti e dauni, 1983 2 G. P. Ciongoli, Alezio, in: A…


(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…


(89 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Περιπόλιον; Peripólion). Locrian fortress near the mouth of the Halex in Bruttium (Bruttii, Bruttium) on the border with Rhegium [1], precise location unknown. Conquered by the Athenians in 426 BC (Thuc. 3,99), only to be won back by Locri [2] in 425 (Thuc. 3,115,6). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 G. Cordiano, L'espansione territoriale di una polis in ambito coloniale alla luce del caso di Rhegion, in: Annali Facoltà di Lettere Università di Siena 18, 1997, 1-16. A. De Franciscis, Società e stato a Locri Epizefiri, 1972, 174f.


(131 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Italy, languages City of the Sal(l)entini (Ptol. 3,1,76) in Calabria, home of the poet Ennius [1] (fr. 377 Vahlen; cf. Cic. Arch.10,22;  Str. 6,3,5; Sil. Pun. 12,393-397; Ps.-Acro 4,80,20; confused by Plin. HN 3,102 and Mela 2,66 with R. in Apulia). R. is located southwest of Lupiae (present-day Lecce; Str. 6,1,2; Guido, Geographia 28,71). Remains of the defensive walls (4th-3rd cents. BC) survive, as well as richly furnished graves from …


(133 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] ( Sagra, -ae, fem.). Small river in Bruttium, south of Caulonia, modern Turbolo, where, c. 560 BC, the Locri [2] were victorious over a numerically far superior force from Croton, allegedly with the assistance of the Dioscuri (Str. 6,1,10; Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; 3,11; Plin. HN 3,95; Plut. Aemilius Paullus 25,1); hence the saying 'truer than the events at the S.' (Paroem. 1,36). Str. (loc. cit.) mentions the existence of altars of the Dioscuri on the S. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography R. van Compernolle, Ajax et les Dioscures au sécours des Locriens sur les rives de la S., in: J…


(296 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Πετηλία; Petēlía). City on a hill (341 m elevation) to the north of  Croton (Liv. 27,26,5; Str. 6,1,3; Plut. Marcellus 29); modern Strongoli. Philoctetes was considered its mythical founder (Cato fr. 70; Verg. Aen. 3,402 with Serv.; Cincius fr. 53; Str. l.c.; Solin. 2,10). P. was the mētrópolis of the Lucani, was fortified by the Samnites against the Thurii (Str. l.c.) [2], in the second of the Punic Wars was on the Roman side and was conquered by the Carthaginians in 215 after a long siege (Liv. 23,20,4-10; 30,1-5; Pol. 7,1…


(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …


(51 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Station on the via Popilia in Bruttium (It. Ant. 106,2; 111,3: 18 miles south of Vibo Valentia), modern Nicótera. Probably not identical with Emporiom, the harbour of Medma (Str. 6,1,5). Iron Age, Greek and Roman finds, Latin inscriptions. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography Nissen 2, 959f.  BTCGI 12, 336-338.


(510 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Bronze Age until Imperial Period A harbour town on the Iapygian coast (supposed to have been founded by Cretans, Steph. Byz. s.v. Βίεννος), c. 70 km south of  Brundisium in the area between Adriatic and Ionian Sea (Liv. 36,21,5; Plin. HN 3,100; CIL X 1795; Ps.-Scyl. 14; 27; Str. 6,3,4), where the crossing to Greece is the shortest (Plin. HN 3,100f.; cf. Cic. Att. 15,21,3; but Luc. 5,375: avius Hydrus [1]), modern Otranto. H. played an important role in the Bronze (Mycenaean finds) [2; 3] and Iron Age (settlement remains of the 9th/8th cents. BC,…

Sinus Terinaeus

(72 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Τεριναῖος κόλπος; Terinaîos kólpos). Bay named after the port of Terina on the Tyrrhenian coast of Bruttium (Thuc. 6,104,2; Plin. HN 3,72; 95), modern Golfo di Santa Eufemia. Possibly identical [1] with the Kólpos Napētínos (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 3; 5), Lamētikós (Aristot. Pol. 1329b) or Hippōniátēs (Str. 6,1,4). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 G. De Sensi Sestito, Tra l'Amato e il Savuto, vol. 1, 1999, 63-68, 214, 227-229.


(177 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Νέαιθος/ Néaithos), Strab. 6,1,12; Ναύαιθος/ Naúaithos, Apollodorus FHG 1,180 fr. 3, from νε- or ναυ- + αἴθω - but cf. [6]). River in Bruttium to the north of Croton (Plin. HN 3,97), rising in the Sila mountains, modern Neto. Allegedly so called because it was there that the captured Trojan women burnt the Achaeans' ships  (Lycophr. 921 with schol.; Str. 6,1,12: hence many Achaean settlements on the N.; schol. Theocr. 4,24; Euphorion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀσκανία; Suda s.v. Ναίεθος; Et…


(234 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] (Μέδμα; Médma). Locrian colony (Thuc. 5,5,3; Scymn. 308; Str. 6,1,5; EM 581,15) founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC and located on the west coast of Italy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 81; Μέσμα/ Mésma, Scyl. 12; Plin. HN 3,73), near the eponymous spring and south of the eponymous river (the modern Mesima) [1; 4. 114ff.], with its own emporium, the modern Rosarno. At the turn of the 6th/5th cents., it was victoriously allied with Hipponium and Locri against Croton, and in 422 with Hipponium against Locri (Thuc. 5,5,3).…


(100 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Messapian town, c. 17 km south-east of Brindisi, today Valesio. Baleθas/Faleθas on silver coins (4th or 5th cent. BC) [1. 226-235]. B. in Geogr. Rav. 4,31, Balesium in Plin. HN 3,101, Valetium in Mela 2,66, Balentium in the Tab. Peut. 7,2, Valentiam in the It. Burd. 609,8. Archaeological remains from Messapian and Roman periods (until the 5th cent. AD) [2; 3] have been found. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. Siciliano, Le zecche della Messapia, in: Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Magna Grecia 30, 1991, 224-254 2 J. S. Boersma, D. G. Yntema, V…


(38 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] Community in the north of Brundisium (also Carbinium): Guido, Geographia 27; 71, modern Carovigno; inscriptions and remains from the Messapian period (8th-2nd cents. BC). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography M. Lombardo, I Messapi e la Messapia, 1992, 222-224.


(128 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Messapian-Roman city in Calabria between Brundisium and Hydruntum (It. Ant. 118,3; Luppia, Tab. Peut. 7,1) with a harbour on the Adriatic built under the emperor Hadrian (Paus. 6,19,9; Ptol. 3,1,12; Mela 2,4; Str. 6,3,6). Roman municipium in the 2nd Augustan region (Plin. HN 3,101); modern Lecce. Messapian and Latin inscriptions. Remains: walls and tombs (4th-2nd cents. BC), Roman theatre and amphitheatre (cf. Guido, Cosmographia 28). Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1BTCGI 8, 1990, 520-522 2 L. Giardino, P…


(150 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars (Μέταυρος; Métauros). River (Plin. HN 3,73), modern Petrace, and town ( Taurianum, Mela 2,68; Geogr. Rav. 4,36) in Bruttium ( Bruttii) on the Tyrrhenian Sea, founded by Zancle (Solin. 2,11) or Locri (Steph. Byz., s.v. Μ.). Home of the poet Stesichorus (Steph. Byz.; Suda s.v. Στησίχορος) [2], modern Gioia Tauro. Archaeological remains of a necropolis (archaic and Imperial periods) in Contrada Pietra [1; 4]; architectural terracotta finds from the archaic period [4]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 A. De F…
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