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Deipyle

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιπύλη; Dēipýlē). Daughter of  Adrastus [1] and Amphithea; sister of  Argea [2], in whose company she is often portrayed [1]. Adrastus gave D. in marriage to  Tydeus, to whom she bore  Diomedes (Apollod. 1,103; 3,59; Hyg. Fab. 69A; 97,4). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Berger-Doer, s.v. Argeia, LIMC 2.1, 587-590.

Demonassa

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δημώνασσα; Dēmṓnassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Argive seer Amphiaraus Daughter of the Argive seer  Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle, wife of  Thersander, a son of Polyneices, mother of Tisamenus (Paus. 3,15,8, 9,5,15). On the Cypselus Chest described by Pausanias she is shown standing with her siblings Eurydice and Alcmaeon before the house of Amphiaraus who is mounting the chariot (Paus. 5,17,7) [1]. On a late Corinthian crater that also depicts the departure of Amphiaraus the inscription calls her …

Dryops

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δρύοψ; Drýops, ‘man of oak’). Gave his name to the Dryopians [1]; son of the river  Spercheus and the Danaid Polydora, or of Apollo and  Dia [3], daughter of the Arcadian Lycaon. D. himself was also thought to be an Arcadian (Str. 8,6,13; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8; Nik. in Ant. Lib. 32; Tzetz. Lycoph. 480). One of his daughters bore Pan to Hermes (Hom. h. 19,33-39). D. had a cult (temple with statue) in the Dryopian town of Asine in Messenia (Paus. 4,34,11), whence occasional coins showing D. [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan…

Ichthyophagi

(131 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰχθυοφάγοι/ Ichthyophágoi, ‘fish-eaters’). Collective ethnographic term for coastal peoples who primarily live on fish. As a Utopian people residing at the ends of the then-known world, the I. are described as models of justice, but sometimes also as animal-like, living on a low civilizational level (Agatharchides of Cnidus, De Mari Erythro, fr. 31-49 = GGM 1, 129-141). Most frequently mentioned are the Ethiopian I. on the Red Sea, whom Herodotus reports as having been sent (in va…

Dictinius

(187 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Bishop of Astorga (Asturica); son of Symphosius, who was likewise bishop there. The most eminent Priscillianist writer after  Priscillianus himself; he declared his disaffection with the doctrine at the first Council of Toletanum (Toledo) in AD 400 and repudiated his own writings, whereupon he was again acknowledged. Later Innocent I defended him (Epist. 3,1ff. = PL 20,485ff.) against rigourist bishops in Baetica and Africa, protesting against the indulgence shown him by the Synod…

Brizo

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βριζώ; Brizṓ). A deity who predicted the future as a person lay sleeping. She was worshipped by Delian women as the protective goddess of boats. They brought her votive offerings in small barks which were not allowed to contain any fish. The name B. was derived from βρίζειν ( brízein, ‘to slumber’) (Semus of Delos in Ath. 8,335a-b = FGrH 396F4). B. is explained by [1] as a goddess who sends the wind and the waves to sleep. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 147.

Eurybates

(110 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυβάτης; Eurybátēs, ‘the long-striding’ [1. 77]). Descriptive name of two heralds. [German version] [1] Herald to Agamemnon Herald to Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 1,320; Ov. Epist. 3,9-10). Together with Talthybius he takes  Briseis from the tent of Achilles and brings her to Agamemnon. He is frequently depicted in this function [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 E. Zervoudaki, s.v. Euryalos 1, LIMC 4.1, 95-97. [German version] [2] Quick-witted herald to Odysseus Quick-witted herald to Odysseus, who treasures him despite his ugliness (Hom. Od. 19,244-248; Hom. I…

Euterpe

(151 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐτέρπη; Eutérpē; cf. τέρπειν; térpein, ‘giver of joy’). One of the nine  Muses, the daughter of Zeus and  Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 77; Apollod. 1,13; Orph. H. 76,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,1 b). Later texts describe flute playing as her particular responsibility (Hor. Carm. 1,1,33; schol. Eur. Rhes. 346; schol. Hes. Theog. 76). According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGrH 244 F 146) and Heraclid. fr. 159 Wehrli, E. was impregnated by Strymon and gave birth to  Rhesus (cf. Apollod. 1,18; sch…

Enceladus

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐγκέλαδος; Enkélados, ‘The Raging One’, from κελαδέω; keladéō; EM. s.v. E. 310,35 Gaisford; Hsch. s.v. E.). One of the  giants, son of Tartarus and Ge (Hyg. Fab. praef. 4). He fought against Zeus (Batr. 283), Dionysus (Eur. Cycl.5-9) and─according to the most widely disseminated version─Athene, who threw the island of Sicily or Mt. Aetna on him (Callim. Fr. 1,36; Eur. HF 907-909; Apollod. 1,37; Verg. Aen. 3,578). He is commonly represented in the visual arts [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 742-743. R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 217-218 F. …

Chromis

(125 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρόμις; Chrómis). [German version] [1] Ally of the Trojans Son of Arsinous (Apollod. Epit. 3,35); ally of the Trojans. With Ennomus leader of the Mysians (Hom. Il. 2,858; 17,218; 494; 534; Dictys 2,35). C. is then either ‘forgotten’ in the portrayal of the river battle (Hom. Il. 21) or replaced by Asteropaeus [1]. At a later time he is regarded as propator of the Mysian Abbaetae [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, 1960, 175. 2 P. Weiss, s.v. C., LIMC 3.1, 275 no. 1. K. Jachmann, Der homer. Schiffskatalog und die Ilias, 1958, 144-146. …

Euryale

(47 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυάλη; Euryálē). [German version] [1] One of the Gorgons One of the  Gorgons (Hes. Theog. 276; Pind. Pyth. 12,20; Apollod. 2,40). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Mother of Orion Mother of  Orion (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,34; Apollod. 1,25). Bloch, René (Berne)

Elatus

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔλατος; Élatos, ‘spruce man’). Name of several mythical figures. [German version] [1] Centaur Centaur, pierced by Hercules' poisoned arrow, which simultaneously wounded  Chiron (Apollod. 2,85). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa. He was the father of the Argonaut Polyphemus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-41; Apollod. 1,113) and of  Caeneus/Caenis (Hyg. Fab. 14,2.4; 173,3; 242,3; Ov. Met. 12,189; 497). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 12-13, 1982, 63. [German version] [3] Eponymu…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …

Elpenor

(166 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπήνωρ; Elpḗnōr). Evocative name, whose exact meaning is disputed (‘on whom rest the hopes of men’ or ‘who hopes for manly vigour’) [1]. He was one of Odysseus' companions, who were turned into swine by Circe; reverted to his normal shape, he fell off the roof of her house in a sleepy drunken stupor, broke his neck, and was left without burial. His shadow begged Odysseus to bury him, when the latter visited the Underworld; his wish was granted (Hom. Od. 10,551-560; 11,51-83; 12,1…

Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Echion

(146 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχίων/ Echíōn, ‘Snake man’, from ἡ ἔχις/ échis, ‘the Snake’). [German version] [1] One of the five 'Spartoi', men who grew from dragon teeth One of the five ‘Spartoi’, the men who grew from the dragon teeth sown by  Cadmus into the Theban earth. He married Cadmus' daughter Agave and was the father of Pentheus (Paus. 9,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,26; 36; Hyg. Fab. 178,6; 184,1; Ov. Met. 3,126; cf. Hor. Carm. 4,4,64: Thebae Echioniae). Aeneas killed the Rutulian Onites, a son of E. and Peridia (Verg. Aen. 12,514f.). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 164f. [German version] [2] Son…

Electryon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἠλεκτρύων; Ēlektrýōn). Tirynthian or Mycenaean hero, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Anaxo, the daughter of  Alcaeus, father of  Alcmene. He lost almost all his sons fighting the Teleboans (Taphians). When the cattle stolen from E. were handed over, he was killed by his son-in-law  Amphitryon. This was the occasion for the latter and Alcmene to emigrate to Thebes (Hes. Sc. 3; 11-12; Apollod. 2,52-56; Hyg. Fab. 244,1; 4; Paus. 2,25,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Diores

(130 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Διώρης; Diṓrēs). [German version] [1] Son of Amarynceus Son of  Amarynceus [1]. One of the four leaders of the Epeians from Elis who went to Troy. He was killed by the Thracian Peirous (Hom. Il. 2,622; 4,517; Paus. 5,3,4). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 98 and 162 E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 569-573. [German version] [2] Father of Automedon Father of  Automedon, chariot driver to Achilles and Patroclus (Hom. Il. 17,429). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Son of Priamus Son of Priamus, companion of  Ae…

Basilinda

(101 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (βασιλίνδα; basilínda). Game in which a child is named king by drawing lots, and then the ‘king’ assigns roles to his playmates which they must act out (Poll. 9,110). It is similar to the game of kings of Cyrus as described by Herodotus, except for the fact that the king is elected there (Hdt. 1,114). The game is different from the ball game in which the winner is called the king and the loser is called the donkey (Poll. 9,106); another (different) children's game is mentioned by Horace (Epist. 1,1,59-60).  Ball games;  Children's games Bloch, René (Berne)

Euryclea

(66 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύκλεια; Eurýkleia, the ‘widely-famed’ [1], Euryclia). Daughter of Ops, from childhood the trusted servant in the house of  Odysseus. She recognizes him by a scar when she is washing the beggar's feet (Hom. Od. 1,429; 2,345-347; 19,350-507; Hyg. Fab. 125,20; 126,7) [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 37 2 O. Touchefeu, s.v. Eurykleia, LIMC 4.1, 101-103. G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, PhD thesis 1973.

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Deion(eus)

(103 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δηιών, Δηιονεύς; Dēiṓn, Dēioneús). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Phocis Son of Aeolus [1] and Enarete the daughter of Deimachus. He was king of Phocis, and married Diomede the daughter of  Xuthus. From this marriage issued Asterodia, Ainetus,  Actor [2],  Phylacus and  Cephalus (Apollod. 1,51; 86; Hyg. Fab. 189,1; Callim. H. 3,209; Str. 10,2,14). The two last names show connections with Attica, as does the name Xuthus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Graf, Greek Mythology, 1993, 127. [German version] [2] A frequent erroneous spelling of Eioneus A frequent erroneous s…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Erythea

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐρύθεια; Erýtheia). One of the  Hesperids (Hes. fr. 360; Apollod. 2,114). According to schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399, the mythical island E. (‘Red Country’) on which  Geryoneus lived (Hes. Theog. 290) is named after her. According to Paus. 10,17,5 (after him Steph. Byz. s.v. Ε.), E. was Geryoneus' daughter and the mother of  Norax by Hermes. E. was usually thought to be in the area of Gadera or Tartessus (Stesichorus fr. 184 PMGF 1; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 18b; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 129a; Philistides FGrH 11 F 3; Hdt. 4,8). This view was challenged by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 26). Bloch, René …

Bormus

(99 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βῶρμος; Bôrmos). A handsome young Mariandynian (south coast of the Black Sea) who disappeared suddenly while he was out fetching water for reapers. According to Hsch (s.v. Β. 356) he was taken by nymphs. Another tradition reports that as the son of Titias, brother of Priolas and Mariandynus, he lost his life on a hunt (Nymphis of Heraclea FGrH 432 F5; Domitius Callistratus FGrH 433 F3; Poll. 4,54f.). The Mariandynians called out after him in laments during high summer. The oldest allusions to this are in Aesch. Pers. 937. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste 4…

Eurydamas

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυδάμας; Eurydámas, ‘the far-conquering’); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Prophesying elderly man Father of Abas and Polyidus. Aged Trojan who had the gift of prophesying from dreams, but could not foretell the death of his sons by the hand of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,148-151 with schol.; Tzetz. Homerica 66). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Suitor to Penelope Suitor to Penelope (Hom. Od. 18,297); he was killed by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 22,283). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Inventor of a Thessalian custom Supposed inventor of th…

Deidamia

(184 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δηιδάμεια; Dēidámeia). [German version] [1] Daughter of king Lycomedes on the island of Scyros Daughter of king Lycomedes on the island of Scyros; wife of  Achilles and mother of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus). According to an older tradition, Achilles conquered Scyros, married D. and fathered Neoptolemus. A later version has Thetis bringing her son Achilles disguised as a girl to Lycomedes on Scyros in order to prevent Achilles' death before Troy, which has been foretold to her. Achilles falls in love with D. and ma…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Calatores

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From calare -- ‘to call’. a) Slaves who convey orders (Fest. p. 34; differently [1] who equates calatores with nomenclatores on the basis of Plaut. Merc. 852. The latter are slaves who give their masters the names of those passing while away). b) Assistants of the higher priests, almost exclusively freed persons. They are already in evidence on the Forum stele (CIL I2 1). Their task was to prepare the way for the priest by calling and to stop the priest coming into contact with polluted elements or unfavourable omens prior to sacrifices. The…

Deimos

(172 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δεῖμος; Deîmos). Personification of fear; usually associated with  Phobos. Together with  Eris the pair urge warriors into battle (Hom. Il. 4,440), and harness the horses to  Ares's chariot (Il. 15,119f.).  Antimachus [3] misinterpreted them as the horses of Ares, descended from Thyella (‘storm’) [1]; similarly, in Val. Fl. 3,89 Terror and Pavor are the horses of Mars. According to Hes. Theog. 934, D. and Phobos are the sons of Ares and Cythereia (Aphrodite). In Semus, FGrH 396 F …

Echemmon

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέμμων; Echémmōn). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus A son of Priamus. He was killed at the same time as his brother Chromius [3] of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,153). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 557f. [German version] [2] Nabataean A Nabataean who was killed by Perseus (Ov. Met. 5,163; 176). Ovid at this point adopts the Homeric motif from Hom. Il. 5,159-165 (cf. E. [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 4-5 (comm.), 1976, 264.

Deiphontes

(173 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιφόντης; Dēiphóntēs). Great-great grandson of Heracles (Heracles-Ctessipus-Thrasyanor-Antimachus-D.). He married  Hyrnetho, daughter of the Heraclid  Temenus. The latter had been awarded Argos in the land lottery after the conquest of the Peloponnese. Temenus' sons, who felt neglected compared with D. and Hyrnetho, had their father killed. As he was dying, Temenus handed over rule to D. and Hyrnetho. But the Temenids did not relinquish their claims to power. For this reason D. m…

Bia

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βία; Bía). Personification of violence; daughter of Pallas and the Styx, sister of Zelus, Nike and Cratus (Hes. Theog. 385-388). In the titanomachy Styx goes over to Zeus with her children and they then follow him. As Zeus' henchmen, Cratus and B. spur Hephaestus on to chain  Prometheus to a rock (Aesch. PV 1-87, in which B. plays a silent part). An Athenian scyphus shows  Ixion being bound to a wheel by Hephaestus, Cratus and B. [1]. Themistocles tells the people of Andros that h…

Empusa

(260 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔμπουσα; Émpousa, etymology unclear [1]). Ghostly female figure ( phásma) who was remarkable for her ability to transform her appearance ( polýmorphos) and belonged to the group of spectral  Demons in Greek popular belief [2; 3] ( Lamia). She adopted various forms and in Aristoph. Ran. 285-295 appeared to Dionysus and his slave Xanthias, on their journey through the underworld [4], as a cow, a mule, a pretty woman and finally as a dog [5]. Her face was lit by fire, one leg was made of ore, the other …

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Chariclo

(109 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χαρικλώ; Chariklṓ). [German version] [1] Wife of Chiron Naiad; wife of  Chiron; daughter of Apollo, Perseus or Oceanus; mother of Carystus (Hes. Cat. fr. 42; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,182 Drachmann). Always depicted near to Chiron, also i.a. as a member of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage procession. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Nymph Nymph; wife of Eueres. According to Pherecydes, being a favourite of Athena she obtains for her son  Teiresias, blinded by Athena, a staff and the gift of understanding the songs of birds (Apollod. 3,70; Callim. H. 5,59). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliograp…

B(o)ugenes

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βουγενής; Bougenḗs). Under this name, which refers to the idea of  Dionysus as ‘born of a cow’, the god was proclaimed by the Argives from the Alcyonian Lake near Lerna to the resounding of trumpets (Paus. 2,37,5f.). In addition, a lamb was lowered into the water for the doorkeeper, Pylaochus. Plutarch's report (Is. 35 p. 364f.) is based on Socrates of Argos. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. Casadio, Storia del culto di Dioniso in Argolide, 1994, 223-251.

Catenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] A genre of Biblical commentaries first appearing in the 6th cent. AD, of which there were many examples in the Middle Ages. In the exegesis of Biblical texts, excerpts of extant commentaries by Church Fathers were reworked into ‘chain commentaries’ or catenae. The existence of several writings by the Church Fathers is only known through these catenae. If the excerpts are written on the margins of the manuscripts around the Biblical text, they are described as margin catenae, and if the commentary follows on from the text, they are known as broad catenae  Florilegium;  Sch…

Eunomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνομος; Eúnomos). [German version] [1] Cup-bearer and relative of king Oeneus Young cup-bearer and relative of King Oeneus. Hercules punches E. for his clumsiness, killing him, and then goes into voluntary exile in Trachis at the court of King Ceyx (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 2; Apollod. 2,150). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] King of Sparta Spartan king of the clan of the Eurypontids. Perhaps the name was however only inserted on the royal list as a personification of  Eunomia [1]. Hdt. 8,131 places E. between  Polydectes and  Charillus, Paus. 3…

Caelus, Caelum

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Translation of the Greek  Uranus (‘Heaven’). The genealogy of C. (Cic. Nat. D. 2,63.3,44; Hyg. Fab. praef. 2) corresponds with some variations to that in Hesiod. Varro (Ling. 5,57) named C. and Terra as the oldest of the deities. C. had no cult in Rome; inscriptions venerating him as aeternus (CIL VI 181-84; cf. also Vitr. 1,2,5) refer to foreign cults [1]. Graphically, C. is portrayed as a bearded man holding a garment above his head in the shape of an arch, as for example on the breast plate of the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Chrysaor(i)us

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρυσάωρ; Chrysáōr). ‘He with the golden sword’ (Hes. Theog. 283). [German version] [1] Attribute of Zeus in Caria Attribute of Zeus in Stratoniceia (Caria), whose temple was the federal sanctuary of the Carian towns (Str. 14,660; CIG 2720f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Eponymous hero of Caria Eponymous hero of Caria, which was also called Χρυσαορίς (Paus. 5,21,10). He was the son of the Sisyphid Glaucus (Steph. Byz. 461 Meineke). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Epithet of various gods Epithet of various gods: Apollo (Hom. Il. 5,509; 15,256 etc.), Arte…

Briseus, Brises

(48 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βρισεύς; Briseús, Βρίσης; Brísēs). [German version] [1] Father of Briseis Father of  Briseis (Hom. Il. 1,392; 9,132). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of  Dionysus in Smyrna Epiclesis of  Dionysus in Smyrna (CIG 3160f.; 3190). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, GGR 2, 344, 361, 379.

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)

Spes

(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…
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