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Pandateria

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Πανδατερία/ Pandatería). Island in the mare Tyrrhenum (Str. 2,5,19; 5,3,6), modern Ventotene (Latina), west of Cyme [2] and south of Caieta, between the insulae Pontiae (Pontia) and Pithecussae. Iulia [6], Agrippina [2], Octavia [3], the wife of the emperor Nero, and Flavia [3] were exiled there. Extant remains include a villa, an aqueduct, a cistern, a fishpond as well as port facilities. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C.M. Amici, F. Cifarelli et al., Ventotene: documentazione archeologica, in: G.M. De Rossi (ed.), Le isole Pontine attraverso i …

Cominium

(104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium adiectum; the modern Val di Comino to the north of  Atina [1] (perhaps San Donato). During the 3rd Samnite War in 293 BC conquered by consul Sp. Carvilius Maximus (Liv. 10,39-44) and destroyed (perhaps in 291 by consul L. Postumius Megellus: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 16,4,5). Probably not to be identified with C. Ceritum (Ocritum?), where Hanno learned of the defeat at  Beneventum in 212 BC (Liv. 25,14,14). Plin. HN 3,108 lists C. among the ruined towns of the Aequiculi. CIL X p. 507, 5143-56. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 669 G. Devoto, Gli A…

Oglasa

(55 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Italian mainland (Plin. HN 3,80), probably Montecristo (province of Livorno), a granite outcrop (10.4 km2, alt. 645 m) to the south of Ilva; the Mons Christi inhabited by monks in the 6th cent. AD (Greg. M. Epist. 1,49). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 320-324.

Metaurus

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] see Mataurus see Mataurus Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] River in Italy (Liv. 27,47; Mataurus, Tab. Peut. 5,2). River rising in the Umbrian Apennines, flowing past Tifernum and Urbinum through the Ager Gallicus and into the Adriatic to the south of Fanum Fortunae, modern Metauro. In 207 BC it was on the M. that the battle between the Romans and Hasdrubal [3] took place. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography N. Alfieri, La battaglia del M., 1994.

Mons Garganus

(115 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape, forested in ancient times (Hor. Carm. 2,9,7; Hor. Epist. 2,1,202; Sil. 8,629), in Apulia on the eastern coast of Italy, isolated mountainous massif (1065 m high), called Ἀρίονος ὄρος/ Aríonos óros (‘Mountain of Arion’) in Scyl. 14, today Promontorio del Gargano. The MG was an important landmark for maritime navigation and for geographers. To the north were the Lacus Pantanus (modern Lago di Lesina) and the Sinus Urias (modern Lago di Várano) with Uria [3], off the coast the Insulae Diomedeae (modern Trem…

Caenina

(81 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, probably near Antemnae, inhabited by Siculi and Aborigines; legend has it that Romulus captured and destroyed the town, then ruled by King Acro; Romulus was also supposedly the first to sacrifice   spolia opima to Jupiter Feretrius. There is documentary evidence for the Caeninenses sacerdotes in imperial Rome, but the town itself had disappeared at the latest by the time of Pliny the Elder (HN 3,68). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 560 Ruggiero, 2, 10.

Ilva

(152 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the coast of Populonia (Αἰθάλη; Aithálē, Αἰθαλία; Aithalía: Hecat. FGrH 1 F 59; Ps.-Scyl. 6), modern Elba. The limḕn Argôios (λιμὴν Ἀργῷος) is supposed to have been founded by the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; others trace the name back to the white colour of the beach). Settled since the Neolithic. I. was famous for its iron mines, which had been exploited since Etruscan times (smelting slag on Pithecussae and at Populonia). In 453 BC, I. was briefly occupied by Syracusae (Dio…

Opitergium

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae | Batavian Revolt Settlement of the Veneti in the lower reaches of the Piave, inhabited from the Bronze Age, linked to the Adriatic by a canal (Str. 5,1,8). O. was municipium of the tribus Papiria ( lex Iulia); later incorporated into the regio X Venetia. As a junction on the via Postumia, it was connected to the city of Concordia; today Oderzo, province of Treviso. O. took the side of Caesar against the Senate, and was rewarded with tax exemption. Archaeological remains: forum, domus with polychrome mosaics (…

Insula Columbaria

(18 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum near Ilva (Plin. HN 3,81). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Castrum

(279 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] C. Inui Town of the Rutuli (Sil. Pun. 8,359) in the centre of Latium, founded by the kings of Alba Longa (Verg. Aen. 6,775). Abandoned in the archaic period, often confused with C. Novum in Etruria (Rut. Namat. 1,227). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografica-antiquaria della Carta de' Dintorni di Roma 1, 1848, 440 Nissen 2, 579 O. Toti, 1984. [German version] [2] C. Novum Settlement on the southern coast of Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confedera…

Dolates

(47 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Members of a community in the regio VI, called Sallentini in the Augustan list (Plin. HN 3,113), because in 266 BC they were deported to Umbria from Soletum in Calabria (Liv. Ep. 15; Eutr. 2,17). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 1, 543 n. 2.

Algae

(22 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version]   Statio in  Etruria, between  Centumcellae and  Graviscae, by the sea (It. Ant. 498,5 f.), not located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ulubrae

(66 words)

Vesidia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tyrrhenian coastal river in Regio VII between Pisae and Luna [3], modern Vezza. It gave its name to the modern region of Versilia. Its location between Vada Volaterrana and Velinae (mistake for Velatrae, cf. Volaterrae), as recorded in Tab. Peut. 4,2, is incorrect. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Fulginiae

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) on the via Flaminia on the eastern edge of the plain of the Topino and Clitumno ( lacus Clitorius), modern Foligno (Perugia). Conquered by Rome in 295 BC, praefec…

Ardea

(272 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae | Latini, Latium City of the Rutuli in Latium on the via Ardeatina (Fest. 356,20), c. 4.5 km from the coast, c. 35.5 km from Rome, at the foot of   mons Albanus , today A. (previously Casalazzara and Pomezia). Linked with the legend of  Aeneas. Mentioned in the 1st Roman-Carthaginian treaty (Pol. 3,22,11); member of the  Latin League (Cato fr. 58); from 442 BC

Septem Maria

(87 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Area of lagoons (seven at the time of naming) at the mouths of the Padus and the Atesis (Plin. HN. 119f.), modern Laguna Veneta in the Atria region, enhanced by the Etrusci with the waters of the Sagis, and still navigable in the Roman Imperial period, partly by means of fossae, between Ravenna and Altinum. Statio on the Via Popilia to the east of Atria…

Lautulae

(89 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Strategically important narrow pass ( saltus) above Tarracina (in Latium) between the mountain range and a steep headland above the sea (Liv. 7,39,7; 22,15,11). The Romans were defeated there in 315 BC by the Samnites (Liv. 9,23,4; Diod. Sic. 19,72). From 312 onwards the steep via Appia led over it. Trajan had 128 feet of the height - measured from the base of the cliff - chopped off and the road built in the plain along the sea; modern Piscomontano. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 642.

Laterium

(33 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Villa in the region of Arpinum west of the Liris near Cereatae (Cic. Att. 4,7,3; 10,1,1; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,4; 3,1,4; 3,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 674.

Arpinum

(162 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Hill town of the  Volsci in the central Liris valley, modern Arpino (Frosinone); Roman   praefectura from 305 BC (Liv. 9,44,16), from 90 BC   municipium of the tribus Cornelia, regio I, birth place of Marius and Cicero. Simple Volscian fortifications are extant at Civita Falconiera, also a strong Roman walled circl…

Tiber

(606 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Τίβερις/ Tíberis, modern Tevere). River in central Italy (403 km long, 17,169 km2 catchment area). Other names: Albula (Serv. Aen. 8,332: from the Latin albus, 'white'; cf. Liv. 1,3; Plin. HN 3,53), Rumon (Serv. Aen. 8,63; 8,90), Serra (Serv. Aen. 8,63), Thybris (Verg. Aen. 2,782; 3,500); called flavus ('yellow') in Verg. Aen. 7,31 for the great quantity of eroded soil it bore (on Tiberinus, god of the T., cf. Varro, Ling. 5,71; Serv. Aen. 8,31). It rises in the Appenines (Appenninus) on Monte Fumaiolo at 1,268 m above sea le…

Hernici

(186 words)

Tetrica mons

(46 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mountain in the Appenninus (Varro Rust. 2,1,5; Verg. Aen. 7,713) to the north of the Via Salaria, which separates the fourth (Nursia der Sabini) and fifth (Asculum in Picenum) regio nes, modern Monti Sibillini (up to 2476 m high). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Truentus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Truentinus). River in Picenum (Picentes), modern Tronto. It rises in the Appenninus (on mons Fiscellus, modern Gran Sasso), flows parallel to the via Salaria past Badies (not located), ad Martis (not located), Surpicanum (not located), ad Centesimum (modern Centesimo), ad Aquas (modern Acquasanta Terme),  Asculum (modern Ascoli) and, navigable only in this area, into the sea near Truentum to the south of modern San Bendetto. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Butunti

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Peucetii at the crossroads of the via Gellia and the via Traiana between Rubi and Barium (It. Ant. 117; It. Burd. 609) where the church of San Pietro sopra Minerva conceals a temple to Minerva, now Bitonto. Municipium of regio II: Plin. HN 3,105; Mart. 2,48,7. Minting in the 3rd cent. BC [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 HN 46 2 V. Acquafredda, Bitonto attraverso i secoli, 1937 3 F. P. Palmieri, Manu…

Sentinum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria (Σέντινον; Séntinon). City in Umbria on the left-hand tributary of the Aesis of the same name; municipium , Regio VI (Str. 5,2,10; Plin. HN 3,114; Ptol. 3,1,53), tribus Lemonia

Palmaria

(61 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic island in the Mare Tyrrhenum , the modern Palmarola (province of Latina). From north to south, it measures 3.5 km at a maximum elevation of 253 m. P. is the westernmost of the insulae Pontiae (Pontia [2]; Varro Rust. 3,5,7; Plin. HN 3,81). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography …

Trivicum

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township, developed out of three vici (cf. place name), of the Hirpini in Apulia (Apuli), possibly modern Trevico (formerly Vico) or modern La Civita 7 km to the east. A villa near T. (possibly at modern Scampitella) was used as a mansio by Horatius [7] on hi…

Corioli

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Volsci in Latium adiectum, perhaps to be located near Monte Giove. Home city of  Coriolanus; C. is mentioned in connection with the events of 490 BC (Liv. 2,39; 3,71). Ceased to exist in the course of the 5th cent.; no traces left at the time of Pliny (HN 3,69). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Gsell, Top., Jahr, 180f. A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topographico-antiquaria della carta de'dintorni di Roma 1, 1837, 512f. Nissen 2, 631.

Melpis

(55 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River originating in the area of the Volsci (Latium) to the north-east of Atina. Between Fabrateria and Aquinum, in a distance of four miles, it flows in the river Liris. It is crossed by the via Latina ( Melfel, Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Melfa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 669 Miller, 330.

Cingulum

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Town in the Picenum on the river Fiumicello Town in the  Picenum on the river Fiumicello (Musone). Municipium of the tribus Velina (Plin. HN 3,111); T. Labienus, who was from C., richly endowed the city with buildings at his own expense (Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). Monuments: remains on the terrace of Borgo San Lorenzo under the modern Cingoli (Macerata); opus reticulatum walls, remains of a temple in the church; aqueduct (restored by Hadrian). The territory of C. extended to the mountain of the same name (Str. 5,2,10; possibly the modern Monte Cingulo). Uggeri, Giovanni (F…

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with steep sides and its only access was fortified through a ditch and walls. Few ancient remains (drainage channels and a  well) are evident. Graves were hewn into the cliff walls opposite the city from the archaic period onwards. Unfaced stone graves adjoin archa…

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Caieta

(191 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the foothills of the same name which form the western end of the sinus Caietanus or Formianus; modern Gaeta (province of Latina). It was reputedly named after either  Aeetes, the father of Medea (Lycoph. 1274), or the wet-nurse of  Aeneas [1], who was supposedly buried there (Verg. Aen. 7,1-7), or after the shoals in its bay (Laconian καιέτας, Str. 5,3,6); temple of Apollo (Liv. 40,2,4). In Roman times, it was a health resort, same as Formiae (four miles away), with villae and attached mausolea. C. was also the location of the villae of S…

Tarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Taro (126 km long). It rises in the Ligurian Appenninus and flows through Forum Novum; it was crossed by the Via Aemilia  (where the Ad Tarum road station was: It. Burd. 616,14) and into the Padus at Parma [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Frigidus

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the river Sontius in East Venetia, modern Vipacco/Wippach, also a station on the via Gemina, 36 miles east of Aquileia (It. Ant. 18), modern Aidussina/Haidenschaft. Here, Theodosius defeated the usurper Eugenius in AD 394 (Claud. De III consulatu Honorii 99). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Buxentum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Town in Lucania, modern Policastro Bussentino (Salerno province) at the Gulf of Policastro. It succeeded the Greek settlement of Pyxus (coins minted in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC: HN 83), was newly founded under Micythus of Messene in 471 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,59,4; Str. 6,1,1), and subsequently left to the Lucani. Roman colonia in 194 BC, renewed in 186 BC (Liv. 32,29,4; 34,45,2; 39,22,4), in 89 BC municipium of the tribus Pomptina. Bishop's seat in AD 592. Both the river, which d…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Minturnae

(434 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae Chief town of the Aurunci (Ausones), 97 miles from Rome, on both banks, connected by a ford, of the lower Liris, which formed the border between Latium and Campania, in a broad coastal plain on the Gulf of Formiae (modern Gulf of Gaeta) to the east of where the via Appia emerges from the narrow strip of land between the Aurunci mountains and the sea. M. and its port facilities were the trading centre of the region. M. is first menti…

Piscinae

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae on the Tyrrhenian coast of Etruria (Tab. Peut. 4,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.

Intercisa

(301 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Military camp in Pannonia inferior Military camp, toll station and civilian settlement near the limes of Pannonia inferior on the Aquincum - - Altinum - Mursa road (It. Ant. 245,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,25f.; 38), modern Dunaújváros, district of Fejér in Hungary. This fortification, which was originally made of wood and earth, was probably built by the ala I Augusta Ituraeorum sagittariorum in the late Flavian period. A military base of the ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica (AD 105-106), the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana (until 118/9) and the ala I Thracum veteranoru…

Ad Fines

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version]   Statio on the   via Aurelia between  Vada Volaterrana and  Pisae on the small river Fine which, at the time of the Roman Republic, formed the northern border of Italy (Tab. Peut. 4,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 71.

Forum

(8,477 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Archaeology and urban studies [German version] A. Definition and Function Latin term for market, market place; rarely also the forecourt of a tomb (in the meaning of Greek drómos, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,61) or part of a wine press (Varro, Rust. 1,54; Columella 11,2,71). As the mercantile and administrative centre of a Roman city ( Town/City), the forum, which took the form of a large open space framed by buildings, was essentially the equivalent of the Greek  agora. A location at the intersection of the   decumanus and   cardo in the city centre is the rule in …

Hesperia

(112 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἑσπερία; Hespería). Ancient name of Italia, characterized from the Greek view as ‘land in the west’ after the geographic location of the peninsula (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35,3). Judging from the  Tabula Iliaca , it was used by Stesichorus perhaps as early as the 6th cent. BC. Since then the name H. has continually been used in poetry (cf. Hor. Carm. 3,6,8). With increasing geographical knowledge, for the same reason, H. signified Spain (Suda s.v. Ἱσπανία), which was sometimes called H. ultima by way of distinction (cf. Hor. Carm. 36,4; Serv. Aen. 1,530). Uggeri, Giovann…

Lacus Prelius

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Coastal lake in Etruria (Cic. Mil. 74; Prile, Plin. HN 3,51) between Vetulonia and Rusellae (the remnants of which can still be seen in the Padule di Raspollino), with a station ad lacum Aprilem of the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 229; 500; Tab. Peut. 4,3). It was fed by the Bruna, which emptied into the mare Tyrrhenum at Castiglione della Pescaia (province of Grosseto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Nersae

(87 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Vicus of the Aequiculi ( regio IV) in the upper Himella (the modern Salto) valley, referred to in Verg. Aen. 7,744 as montosae Nersae (‘mountainous Nersae’), the modern Civitella di Nesce. For the place name, see Nursia. After 49 BC, N. probably became part of the res publica Aequiculanorum ( tribus Fabia). Inscriptions refer to a forum, theatre and a Mithraeum. Remains: aqueduct, rock tombs. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Z. Mari, s.v. Nersae, EV 3, 709f.

Sutrium

(198 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Coloniae City in southern Etruria (Etruscan su θ ri) on a tuff spur (291 m high) between the Cimini and the Sabatini mountains (Str. 5,2,9), modern Sutri. The site was settled from the 10th cent. BC onwards. Conquered by Furius [I 13] Camillus in 394 BC after the fall of Veii, S. was a Latin colonia from 383 BC (Vell. 1,14,2; Liv. 27,9,7; 29,15,5; Diod. Sic. 14,117,4), later a municipium. In the 1st cent. BC colonia coniuncta Iulia Sutrina, tribus Papiria (CIL XI 3254; Plin. HN 3,51). Archaeo…

Caprasia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Etruscan island between Populonia and  Corsica (Capraria, Αἰγίλιον; Aigílion, Plin. HN 3,81), modern Capraia, province of Livorno. Magnificent Roman villa near Assunta, inhabited by monks in the 5th cent. (Rut. Namat. 1,439; Oros. 7,36,5; Aug. Epist. 48). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Riparbelli, Aegilon, 1973 BTCGI 4, 443-445.

Alma

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in  Etruria in the region of  Vetulonia (It. Ant. 500,5 f.); flows from Monte d'Alma into the Gulf of Follònica; today Fosso Alma. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Tadinae

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Municipium in Umbria (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Sant'Antonio della Rasina to the west of Gualdo Tadino. Road station on the via Flaminia. In 552 AD Narses [4] defeated the Goth Totila at T. (Proc. BG 4,29). Later abandoned in favour of the higher-lying Gualdo. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Sigismondi, La battaglia tra Narsete e Totila, in: Bolletino della Deputazione di Storia Patria dell'Umbria 65, 1968, 5-68.

Avens

(41 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Sabinum, rising at Mt Fiscellus near  Nursia (Plin. HN 3,109). The   via Salaria followed the course of the river from Falacrinae via Interocrium and Cutilia to Reate, where it joined the Velinus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Dianium

(48 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small island in the mare Tyrrhenum opposite  Cosa in Etruria, named Artemisia by the Greeks because of its crescent shape (Plin. HN 3,81), mod. Giannutri (Prov. Grosseto). Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. C. Bronson, G. Uggeri, in: Studii etruschi 36, 1970, 201-214 BTCGI 8, 108-114.

Fabrateria

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] F. Vetus Town of the Hernici on the Trerus (modern Sacco) near Frosinone ( Frusino) in Latium adiectum ( regio I), called F. Vetus from the end of the 2nd cent. BC, near the church of Santa Maria del Fiume near Ceccano (cf. CIL X p. 552, 5647-5661; EEpigr 8, 888f.). As a Volscian town, it was involved in Rome's disputes with the Samnites (Liv. 8,19,1) in 330. Initially civitas sine suffragio, then municipium, tribus Tromentina (CIL X 5657); under dictatores, later administered by IV viri and decuriones. Cult of Ceres and Hercules. Centuriation area. Uggeri, Giovanni (…

Tiliaventum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia, modern Tagliamento (Geogr. Rav 4,36: Taliamentum). It rises in the Alpes Carnicae, flows through Iulium Carnicum, Osopus (modern Osoppo), Reunia (Ragogna), Apicilia (Latisanotta) and into the Adriatic between Concordia (Concordia Sagittaria) and Aquileia [1]. Wood was floated on the T. from the mountains to the sea; it is hence conceivable that the name of the river derives from Latin tilia, 'lime'. Plin. HN 3,126 distinguishes the T. Maius and the T. Minus (modern Fella), its left-hand tributary. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Ved…

Vitellia

(172 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2], 1st cent. AD Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2] who married her to Valerius [II 2] Asiaticus, governor of the province of Belgica in the year AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 1,59,2). After the death of her father, she was spared  by Vespasian and married to a person of high social status. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier 640, no. 817. [German version] [2] Township in Latium Township in Latium, assumed to be at modern Civitella, first literary mention in connection with the events around Coriola…

Liris

(86 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in central Italy (168 km), modern Garigliano. It has its source in the Colles Simbruini near Lacus Fucinus, flows through Sora, takes up the Fibrenus below Arpinum (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,3) and forms a waterfall here; near Fregellae is the confluence of the Trerus (Sacco), then the Melfis (Melfa). Upstream of its mouth lies the Lucus Maricae, a holy grove of Marica with a cult centre sacred to the Romans. To the right of the mouth lies Minturnae. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Mons Ciminius

(111 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic massif (1053 m, modern Monte Cimino) in southern Etruria, in the borderlands shared with the Falisci in the Silva Ciminia. The MC towered above the Lacus Ciminius, which was rich in fish (according to Serv. Aen. 7,697, the lake was created by Hercules; modern Lago di Vico). East of the lake, it was crossed by the via Ciminia, a branch of the via Cassia between Sutrium and Aquae Passerianae (near Viterbo). There seems to have been an ancient place of worship on Monte Venere beside the lake. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Francocci, D. Rose, L'antica vi…

Casuentus

(44 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Lucania (Plin. 3,97; Kasas in Bacchyl. 10,115; Basintos, Basentius in Guido 29), descends from the Apennines near Potentia and flows into the Gulf of Taranto near Metapontum, modern Basento. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 336, 343; 2, 908.

Lacus Nemorensis

(332 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake in Latium near Aricia in the Alban Hills (Plin. HN 19,141), modern Lago di Nemi. An underground drainage adit (Str. 5,3,13) was cut around the 4th cent. BC [1]. The forested slopes on its banks formed the nemus Dianae (grove of Diana, with temple and high priest, rex Nemorensis, who - always a runaway slave - had to kill his predecessor in single combat [2; 3; 4]). The nemus Dianae led to the lake being called lacus Nemorensis (Prop. 3,22), but also speculum Dianae (‘Mirror of Diana’) (Serv. Aen. 7,516). There was a community of villas (Cic. Att. 6,1,4…

Caelia

(198 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Town of the Peucetii in Apulia Town of the Peucetii in Apulia at the via Municia Tranana, modern Ceglie del Campo (province of Bari). Over a length of more than 5 km encircled by a town wall. Inside, graves from the 6th/4th cents. BC; traces of centuriation. Minting in the 3rd cent. BC. (HN 46: ΚΑΙΛΙΝΟΝ). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (Str. 6,3,7; Ptol. 3,1,7). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Roppo, C., 1921 M. Gervasio, in: Iapigia 1, 1930, 241-272 F. Biancofiore, La viabilità antica, in: ASPugl 15, 1962, 230-32 I. Albergo Frugis, Atti XI Conv. Tar…

Fagifulae

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Samnites Pentri ( regio IV) on a hill to the right of the Tifernus. In 217 BC won back from the Carthaginians by Q. Fabius Maximus (Liv. 24,20,5). Municipium, tribus Voltinia (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX p. 237). Its location was pinpointed at the Church of Santa Maria di Faífula (Faífoli) near Montágano north of Campobasso. Epigraphical evidence: CIL IX 2551-2561; EEpigr 8, 109. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Degrassi, Quattuorviri, in: Id., Scritti vari 1, 1962, 150ff. G. De Benedettis, F., in: S. Capini (ed.), Samnium. Archeologia del Molis…

Aquilonia

(228 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso [1]. The description of the military operations of 293 BC at Liv. 10,38-44, decisive for the outcome of the 3rd  Samnitic War, corresponds with the results of more recent excavations (city wall from the 4th cent. BC, three city gates); traces of streets indicate a planned urbanization. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography 1 Vetter no. 200 C: Akudunniad. G. De Benedittis, in: S. Capini, E. Arslan (ed.), Samnium, 1991, 127-130. [German version] [2] A town of the  Hirpi…

Corfinium

(209 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Caesar | | Regio, regiones Main centre of the Paeligni, on the Aternus; the modern Corfinio (province of L'Aquila). In 90 BC under the name Italia or Italica (Diod. Sic. 37,2,4; Str. 5,4,2; Vell. Pat. 2,16,3) capital of the rebellious Italici; coinage bearing the legend viteliu. Municipium, tribus Sergia; affected by the Civil War (Caes. B Civ. 1,16-23). Regio IV (Plin. HN 3,106). Intersection of the via Valeria, via Claudia Valeria and via Minucia (It. Ant. 310). Archaeological remains: re…

Trifanum

(65 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Aurunci (Ausones) on the Tyrrhenian coast between Minturnae and Sinuessa, where in 340 BC the consul Manlius [I 12] defeated the Latini decisively (Liv. 8,11,11; Diod. Sic. 16,90,2), to be found on the Ager Vescinus (cf. Liv. 10,21,7; 10,31,2; Cic. Leg. agr. 2,66). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Coarelli, Vescia, in: id. (ed.), Minturnae, 1989, 29-33, here 33.

Trigaboli

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town near modern Ferrara, where the Padus (modern Po) separated into two branches, the Olana (Ὄλανα) and the Padoa (Παδόα) (Pol. 2,16,11: Τριγάβολοι/ Trigáboloi). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, La romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 46 f.

Macrinum

(60 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Way station on the Adriatic coastal road in Picenum between Castrum Novum and Ostia Aterni (Tab. Peut. 6,1). The place name is probably corrupt, in connection with the mouth of the river called Matrínos by Str. 5,4,2 and Ptol. 3,1,17. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 431 N. Alfieri, I fiumi adriatici, in: Athenaeum 37, 1949, 137f.

Pistoriae

(188 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Petraccia Lucernoni, Maria Federica (Milan)
[German version] (Πιστωρία; Pistōría). Ligurian city on the Umbro (modern Ombrone), a right-bank tributary of the Arnus, where a pass opens northwards over the Appennines; modern Pistoia. First mentioned at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC (in Plaut. Capt. 160f.). Catilina was defeated near P. in 62 BC in a battle against Petreius (Sall. Catil. 1,37). From 89 BC on, municipium of the tribus Velina; from Augustus' time on, in regio VII (Plin. HN 3,52; Ptol. 3,1,48); in Late Antiquity in the Tuscia annonaria (Amm. Marc. 27,3,1), mansio on the via Cassia (Tab. Peut. 4,2; It. Ant. 284f.).…

Sapis

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A river, which gives its name to the tribus Sapinia, modern Savio; rises in the Appennines in the north of Umbria (Plin. HN 3,115;  Str. 5,1,11: Σάπις; Sápis); Sarsina is in its upper reaches. It flows through the region of Caesena into the Aemilia and joins the Ionian Sea (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Ravenna. It was crossed by the via Popilia at the road station S. between Ariminum and Ravenna (Tab. Peut. 5,1: Sabis). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Acerrae

(199 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brizzi, Giovanni (Bologna) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] City on the Clanius in Campania This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Etrusci, Etruria City of the  Sidicini or  Samnites on the Clanius in  Campania (Str. 5,4,8; 11; Plin. HN 3,63). 332 BC civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8, 17, 12; Vell. Pat. 1, 14, 4), praefectura (fortress destroyed (Liv. 23, 17, 7; 19, 4), rebuilt 211 BC (Liv. 27, 3). Colonia under Augustus (liber coloniarum 229). Few archaeological remains under today's city of Acerra. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 754 [German version] [2] Capital of the  Insubres Cap…

Asisium

(244 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria Town of the  Umbri on the slopes of Mount Subasio, modern Assisi. From 89 BC   municipium of the tribus Sergia, later regio VI (Str. 5,2,10; Plin. HN 3,113; Ptol. 3,1,53). Birthplace of  Propertius. Wall ring in opus quadratum with an irregular course (2.5 km), remains of a gate in the west. The town was laid out in terraces, with a central forum with a temple, allegedly of Minerva, on its northern side, and arcades on the other three sides (1st cent. BC), ciste…

Ameria

(309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in  Umbria between  Tiber and Nera, on the via Amerina (a branch of the   via Cassia , which led to  Tuder) 56 miles out from Rome (CIL IX 5833), today Amelia (Terni). According to Cato very old (HRR Cato fr. 49; Plin. HN 3,114). 406 m high chalk walls, which especially on the north side offer protection; these were strengthened with massive polygonal masonry.   Municipium of the   tribus Clustumina . Cults of Jupiter, Mars, Fortuna and seviri augustales are attested. Base of a temple (S. Mar…

Regae, Regisvilla

(106 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥηγισουίλλα/ Rhēgisouílla). Small landing site ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 499,3 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Graviscae and Cosa(e), the residence of Maleus [3], king of Pelasgian colonists, who later returned to Athens (Str. 5,2,8). In the Hellenistic-Roman Period, R. was a port of the Volci/Vulci (near modern Montalto di Castro). The place has been located at Le Murelle di Montalto di Castro; there is a Roman villa of the period from the 1st to the 5th cents. AD there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Tortorici, Regisvillae, in: Quaderni Ist. To…

Ad Solaria

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Statio in  Etruria on the  via Cassia Statio in  Etruria on the   via Cassia between Florentia and Pistoriae ( regioVII - Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,36). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Statio in  Liguria on the via Aemilia Scauri A further statio of the same name was in  Liguria on the via Aemilia Scauri between Luna and Genoa ( regioIX -- Tab. Peut. 3,5; Geogr. Rav. 4,32). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Longula

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Λόγγολα; Lóngola). Town near Antium and Corioli whose inhabitants were known as Long(ul)ani. In ancient times in the territory of the Latini, later of the Volsci, and in 493 BC conquered by Consul Postumus Cominius [I 3] (Liv. 2,33,4; 39,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,91; 8,36; 85). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 556, 631 M. Pallottino, Le origini di Roma, in: ArchCl 12, 1960, 27 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963, 13, 368.

Mons Argentarius

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Promontory on the coast of Etruria (635 m; Rut. Nam. 1,315) to the south of the mouth of the Albinia (modern Albegna), today still Monte Argentario, connected to the mainland by two narrow strips of land enclosing a lagoon. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. Bronson, G. Uggeri, Isola del Giglio, Isola di Giannutri, Monte Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello, in: SE 38, 1970, 201-214.

Simbruinus ager

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Territory (Frontin. Aq. 15,1) of the Aequi at the foot of the colles Simbruini (Tac. Ann. 11,13,2) in the valley of the upper Anio which was blocked by reservoir dams to create the “stagna Simbruina” ("the Simbruine Lake", Tac. Ann. 14,22;  cf. Sil. Pun. 8,368 f.) for Nero's villa at Sublaqueum (modern Subiaco). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. G. Fiore Cavaliere, Sublaqueum - Subiaco, 1994.

Labici

(113 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus City in Latium on the north-eastern slopes of the Alban Hills, modern Monte Compatri. Member of the Latin League; in Roman wars against the Aequi allied with the latter and destroyed by Q. Servilius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,61; 8,19); a Roman colony from 418 BC (Liv. 4,47,49; [1. 394]). Municipium (Cic. Planc. 23). Caesar had a villa in the ager Labicanus, which was known for its wine (Suet. Iul. 83). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963. G. Tomassetti, La campagna r…

Fanum Fortunae

(255 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae Umbrian harbour-city north of the mouth of the Metaurus ( regio VI), where the via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic coast; the modern Fano (Pesaro; It. Gaditanum 95; It. Ant. 126; It. Burd. 615; Tab. Peut. 5,2). The name derives from the cult of Fortuna. F. had the status of a municipium, tribus Pollia. The city was occupied by Caesar after his crossing of the Rubicon (Caes. B Civ. 1,11,4); under Augustus it was the veterans' colony of Iulia Fanestris (CIL XI 6232); basilica of Vitruvius (5,1,6-10; [1; 2])…

Fundi

(315 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aurunci in Latium adiectum at the foot of the montes Fundani (Tac. Ann. 4,59) on the via Appia between Tarracina and Formiae, 74 miles from Rome, modern Fondi (Latina). In 338 or 332 BC together with  Formiae civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8,14,10; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4), F. then sided with the Privernati (Liv. 8,19). In 188 BC F. and Formiae belonged to the tribus Aemilia ( cum suffragio); F. was a praefectura; in 174 it obtained an aqueduct through the Roman censores (Liv. 41,27,11). F. was a municipium with three aediles and had a cult of Hercules. Under Augustus F. was a c…

Vicus Aventia

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (vulgarly also Vicoventia). Vicus (cf. CIL V 2383; XI 421) in Regio VIII (Aemilia;  cf. Regio , with map). It flourished from the 1st cent. AD as an administrative centre of the saltus regionis Padanae Vercellensium Ravennatium (cf. ILS 1509). Documented from 431 AD as a suffragan bishopric of Ravenna (Petrus Chrysologus, Sermo 175). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Insediamenti, viabilità e commerci, in: N. Alfieri (ed.), Storia di Ferrara, vol. 3, 1989, 57-60.

Luca

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Caesar | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Coloniae City on the fossilized (that is, practically dried-up) tributary of the Auser (modern Serchio), which in ancient times flowed into the Arno at Pisa, today Lucca; last colonia of Latin law, founded in 180 BC by Rome on the territory of the Pisani (Liv. 40,43,1); from 89 BC municipium of the tribus Fabia. Important road junction (It. Ant. 283ff.; Tab. Peut. 4,1); in 56 BC the so-called triumvirate between Caesar, Po…

Planasia

(27 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum off Etruria, modern Pianosa. Prehistorical finds, villa of Agrippa [2] Postumus, catacombs. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 13, 535-546.

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Mons Albanus

(205 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic massif (956 m) in Latium Vetus (Latini), modern-day Monte Cavo, southeast of Rome (from it derives the term lapis Albanus,  a grey-coloured peperino or volcanic tuff used in buildings in Rome). The centre of cult worship originally lay beneath Alba Longa in a grove, then later in the temple of Iuppiter Latiaris ( templum Iovis Latiaris, CIL XIV 2227) 20 miles from Rome, where , in spring, the Latins and Romans sacrificed a white bull on occasion of the feriae Latinae and organised games in the presence of all the  magistrates.The grove of Diana Nemorensis ( nemus D…

Frentani

(240 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Samnite tribe on the Adriatic coast (Str. 5,4,2). The name is derived from the dissimilation of the place name [1] * Frentrum, which in turn was inferred through numismatical ( Frentrei) and inscriptional ( Frentra[ni]) methods [2]. The F. settled on the slopes of the regio VII that fall away towards the Adriatic, between the Maiella mountains and the coastal region surrounded by Ortona, the valleys of the Sagrus (Sangro), the Trinius (Trigno), the Tifernus, and the Frento (Fortore). In the west, the tribal area bordered on t…

Mater Magna

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Anatolian goddess in Rome More fully Mater Deum Magna Idaea (see [1] on the name), the goddess Mḗtēr/ Cybele, who was brought from Pergamum to Rome in 204/5 BC as demanded by the Sibyllini libri and with the help of Attalos [4] I. Even in antiquity the precise place of origin was disputed: Pessinus (Liv. 29, 10,5; 11,7), Pergamum (Varro ling. 6, 15), or the mountain chain Ida [2] in the Troad (Ov. fast. 4,263f.). The cult of Mḗtēr/Kybele is attested at all three places. Research favours an origin on Ida [2.16-20] or from Pessinus [3.318] - in each case t…

Alba Fucens

(199 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae Latin   colonia with 6,000 colonists, founded as a fortification to control a road junction in 304 BC (Liv. 10. 1. 2) in the area of the  Aequi: the later via Valeria (between Rome and the Adriatic;   decumanus of the city laid out at right angles) and a road that connected Etruria with Campania along the Liris met there. Served as place of exile for Syphax, for Perseus and for Bituitus. Decline since the 3rd cent.…

Padusa

(112 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Marshy region on the river Eridanus, which had originated from a southern arm of the Padus (Po) in the period of Early History and had dried up in the Roman period. The fossil river bed was used in the construction of the fossa Augusta , the navigable canal between Padus and Classis which was the port for Ravenna (cf. Plin. HN 3,119). P. is associated with the myth of Phaethon and Cycnus [3] (Diod. Sic.5,23,3). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Gambi, Cosa era la Padusa, 1950  G. Uggeri, La Romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 49  Id., Insediamenti, viab…

Tamarus

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Calor (modern Calore) in the territory of the Hirpini, modern Tammaro. It rises in the region of Saepinum, crosses the Ager Taurasinus, touches Forum Novum (modern Sant' Arcangelo) and into the Calor at Beneventum; stretches of it are flanked by the via Minucia (station Super Thamari fluvium:  It. Ant. 103,1) and the via Traiana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 370 G. De Benedittis, L'alta valle del T., in: Studi Beneventani 4-5, 1991, 3-38.

Nar

(156 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tributary of the Tiber running through Sabina and Umbria, present-day Nera, parts of which formed the boundary between regio IV and VI (Enn. Ann. fr. 260 V2: sulphureas ... Naris ad undas; Verg. Aen. 7,517; nar is Sabine for  ‘sulphur’). It had its source at Mons Tetrica in the territory of Nursia. M'. Curius [4] Dentatus diverted the Velinus (outflow of the Lacus Velinus and the Avens, Himella und Tolerus rivers) into the N. It flowed past Interamna [1] Nahars (modern Terni), where it was crossed by the via Flaminia, which led to Spoletium. It ran below Narnia and wa…

Pallia

(56 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (the modern Paglia). Right tributary of the Tiber which at Volsinii (the modern Orvieto) is joined by the Clanis flowing from Clusium.  A harbour (Pagliano) is formed where it flows into the Tiber. A station Pallia was situated on the via Cassia between Volsinii and Clusium (Tab. Peut. 4,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Herculem, ad

(37 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station in Etruria on the via Aemilia Scauri between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae (It. Ant. 293). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia da Vada a Pisa, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.

Falerii

(786 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Oracles Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria on a tuff spur of the eastern Monti Cimini between two righthand tributaries of the Tiberis (Vicano and Fosso Maggiore). Founded by the Argive hero  Halesus (Ov. Fast. 4,73), according to others a Chalcidian foundation (Iust. 20,1,13). Had its own Italic dialect (Str. 5,2,9; [1; 2; 3]). Cu…

Senones

(630 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] [1] Celtic people in Umbria and Picenum Celtic people which migrated at the end of the 4th cent. BC from the south of Gaul into the area between the Apennine mountains and the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic) in the region of the Rivers Sena and Tinna in Umbria and Picenum (Liv. 5,35,3). As allies of the Samnites in the third Samnite War, they were defeated by the Romans in 295 BC, and their territory was seized by Rome; they were expelled a few years later ( Ager Gallicus ). Rome founded Sena Gallica there probably in 289 BC (Pol. 2,19,12; Liv. Epit. …

Fibrenus

(57 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the Liris in Latium in the region between Sora and Arpinum, modern Fibreno. At its mouth was the location of Cicero's villa (Cic. Leg. 2,6), remains of which are thought to be recognizable in the abbey of San Domenico near Isola del Liri. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 670.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Compsa, Cossa

(134 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Hirpini in the regio II on the border to Lucania, modern Conza della Campania (Province of Avellino). Located on a height by the upper  Aufidus, at the crossing to the Sele valley (Sella di Conza). Involved in the Second Punic War, Hannibal's base of operations after Cannae (216 BC), but it was reconquered by Fabius Maximus (214 BC). In the Social War on Rome's side (Vell. 2,16). Municipium of the tribus Galeria. Cults of the Mater Deum and Iupiter Vicilinus in agro Compsano (Liv. 24,44,8). Epigraphy: CIL IX, p. 88, 963-993, Roman sarcophagi, episcopal…
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