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Cretheus

(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…

Acastus

(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Aeetes

(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…

Argo

(176 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀργώ; Argṓ). Ship which carried the Argonauts (Hom. Od. 12,70). A ship with space for fifty oarsmen, constructed out of spruce wood from Pelion (Eur. Med. 3 f.) by Argus the son of Phrixus under the guidance of Athena (Apollod. 1,110). Named after her builder (Apollod. loc. cit.; Pherecydes FGrH F 106) or her speed (Diod. Sic. 4,41,3). The A. was granted the ability to speak (Pherecydes FGrH F 111a; Aeschyl. fr. 20 TrGF 3) by means of a piece of Dodonian oak that Athena set into t…

Aeson

(579 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Lezzi-Hafter, Adrienne (Kilchberg) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
(Αἴσων; Aísōn). [German version] [1] Figure from Greek mythology, eponym of the city of Aeson Son of Cretheus and Tyro (Scarphes: schol. D Hom. Il. 532), husband of Polymelas or Alcimedes, father of Jason (Hom. Od. 11,258; Hes. Theog. 992; fr. 38-40 M-W; Pherecyd. FGrH F 104; Apollod. 1,107) and of Promachus (Apollod. 1, 143; Diod. Sic. 4,50,2). Eponym of the city of Aeson (Pherecyd. FGrH F 103; Pind. fr. 273; Apoll. Rhod. 1,411 with schol.), lives, however, always in Iolcus, whose legitimate ruler is his olde…

Phrixus

(334 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Φρίξος/ Phríxos, Lat. Phrixus). Son of Athamas and Nephele [1], brother of Helle. When Athamas, incited by his second wife Ino (Leucothea), intends to sacrifice P. to Zeus on the basis of an oracle falsified by her, he flees with Helle on a ram with a golden coat sent by Nephele. Helle drowns; P, after his arrival in Aea (Colchis), sacrifices the ram to Zeus Phyxios and gives the fleece to Aeetes who hangs it up in the grove of Ares (as a guarantee of his rule: Diod. Sic. 4,47,6; Va…

Idmon

(234 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἴδμων; Ídmōn). [German version] [1] Seer Son of  Asteria [2] (daughter of the Thessalian  Lapith Coronus) and of Apollo (Val. Fl. 1,228ff.), father of  Thestor, grandfather of  Calchas (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 108.). The Argive  Abas [1] is named as his human ‘father’ (Apoll. Rhod. 1,139ff.; Orph. A. 187ff.; Hyg. Fab. 14,11). As a seer with a telling name (‘the one who knows’), what is apparently the original version of the myth of  Argonauts he takes part in the expedition despite his foreknowledge tha…

Eurynome

(186 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὐρυνόμη; Eurynómē). Daughter of Oceanus; with Thetis she hid  Hephaestus for nine years after he had been expelled from Olympus by Hera (Hom. Il. 18,398ff.). In Hes. (Theog. 358), E. comes next to Metis in the catalogue of the  Oceanids (337; Apollod. 1,8 mother Tethys), next to Metis and Themis in the catalogue of the wives of Zeus as mother of the  Charites (907ff.; Apollod. 1,13), as which Call. (fr. 6 Pf.) calls her Τιτηνιάς ( Titēniás) (participant in the battle with the giants on the Pergamum Altar: inscr. from Pergamum 110). Like the Song of Orph…

Tyro

(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…

Minyades

(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…

Medea

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μήδεια/ Mḗdeia, Lat. Medea). Born in Aea/Colchis (M. Αἰαίη: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136) as the daughter of Aeetes, who was the son of Helios and the brother of Circe, and the Oceanid Idyia (Hes. Theog. 956ff., 992ff., Apollod. 1,129) or Hecate (Diod. Sic. 4,45,3). Sister of Chalciope [2] and Apsyrtus [1] (Apollod. 1,83.132), betrothed to Styrus (Val. Fl. 5,257f.), wife of Jason [1] and by him the mother of Medeius (Hes. Theog. 1001) or Mermerus and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Subsequently s…

Symplegades

(158 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Συμπληγάδες sc. πέτραι; Symplēgádes, sc. pétrai: 'clashing sc. rocks'), also synormádes (Sim. fr. 546 PMG), sýndromoi (Pind. P. 4,208-211), Cyaneae [1] (Eur. Andr. 864 f.), syndromádes (Eur. Iph. T. 422) or Plēgádes (Apoll. Rhod. 2,596). Gateway of rocks in the myth of the Argonauts at the transition from the real world into the mythical one (return through the Planctae , with which they were often confused, e.g. Hdt. 4,85,1). The Argo is the first ship to successfully pass through, with Hera's (and Athena's) help, a…

Tiphys

(156 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τῖφυς/ Tîphys). Son of Hagnias, from Siphae, the port of Thespiae, Argonaut and helmsman of the Argo (Apollod. 1,111; Apoll. Rhod. 1,105-110 and 1,401 f.; Val. Fl. 1,481-483; Orph. A. 122-126). T. leads the launch (Apoll. Rhod. 1,381-393), urges departure ( ibid. 1,522 f.), steers safely out of harbour ( ibid. 1,559-562) and takes the ship unharmed into the Bosporus [1] ( ibid. 2,169-176) and through the Symplegades ( ibid. 2,573-606). After his death from illness among the Mariandyni, Ancaeus [2] (Apollod. 1,126; Apoll. Rhod. 2,854-898; Val. Fl…

Charybdis

(311 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Χάρυβδις; Chárybdis). Cliff with a dangerous whirlpool, which together with Scylla, situated opposite it, originally formed a rocky portal, that was part of the route of the Argonauts on their return journey between Sirens and Planctae (on which Thrinacia follows), and which the  Argo successfully passes (Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,922f.; cf. Ov. Met. 7,62ff.; Orph. A. 1253ff., where the Argo comes through the Pillars of Hercules and C. is already located in Sicily, whilst Scy…

Lemnian women, Hypsipyle

(433 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὑψιπύλη, -λεια; Hypsipýlē, - leia). The myth that was originally perhaps autonomous [1. 235f.] and was then interwoven with the journey of the Argonautae and the Theban group of legends is as follows, according to Apollod. 1,114f. (cf. Apoll. Rhod. 1,609ff.; Ov. Pont. 6; Val. Fl. 2,82ff.; Stat. Theb. 5,28ff.; schol. Pind. Nem. hypothesis b): Because of the neglect of her cult, Aphrodite afflicts the Lemnian women (LW) with a bad odour [2; 3] so that the men of Lemnos live with capt…

Phineus

(595 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φινεύς; Phineús). [German version] [1] Son of Phoenix and Cassiepeia Son of Agenor ’s[1] son Phoenix [1] and Cassiepeia [1] (Hes. Cat. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Antimachus fr. 70 Matthews); also son of Agenor himself (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 95; Apoll. Rhod. 2,237; Nonnus, Dion. 2,680) or Poseidon (Apollod. 1,120). Married first to Cleopatra [I 1], daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, by whom he fathers two sons (Plexippus/Pandion; Parthenius/Carambis; Mariandynus/Thynus, and others); then to Idaea, the daug…

Hylas

(327 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὕλας; Hýlas). Son of  Theiodamas (Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212f.) and Menodice (Hyg. Fab. 14,11); local hero of  Cius. In a quarrel over food (for his son: Callim. Fr. 24),  Heracles kills Theiodamas (Apollod. 2,153; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212-1219, where Heracles seeks a pretext for war against the Dryopians). Furthermore, according to Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1153-1283, Heracles takes H. with him as his lover on the journey of the  Argonauts. In Mysia, H. is kidnapped by nymphs while fetching water (transformed into an…

Sidero

(136 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Σιδηρώ; Sidērṓ), second wife of Salmoneus and, after his death, first wife of Cretheus , the ruler of Iolcus. She torments her stepdaughter Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus and his first wife Alcidice and Cretheus's niece, who grows up with them in Thessaly. Neleus [1] and Pelias, the exposed sons of Tyro and Poseidon, recognize and free their mother; Pelias kills S. on an altar to Hera; Cretheus marries Tyro (Apollod. 1,90-96). In Tragedy S. and Salmoneus in Elis together torment Tyro…

Er

(287 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] ()̃Ηρ; Êr). From Pamphylia; the son of Armenius; subject of the eschatological myth in Plat. (Resp. 10,614b ff.): having fallen in war, E. was discovered undecayed after 10 days; when on the 12th day he was about to be burned on the pyre, he came back from the afterlife and, as he had been instructed, reported on his descent or katabasis to the Underworld, with the court of the dead, punishments and rewards, the spindle of Ananke, the casting of lots by Lachesis. Ancient tradition already associates the E. myth with the Orient: in Clem. Al…
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