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Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Demarchus

(98 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμαρχος; Dḗmarchos). [German version] [1] Lycian, honoured in Samos Son of Taron, Lycian, rewarded with citizenship and privileges of honour for his services to the Samians (at the time of their banning) and to  Phila on Samos (Syll.3 333). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Syracusan strategos c. 400 BC Syracusan strategos, who in 411 BC, as one of the followers of the exiled Hermocrates, commanded the Syracusan fleet in the Aegean (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29) and was removed in 405/4 by Dionysius I as a political rival (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berli…

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agroetas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγροίτας; Agroítas). Greek historian of the Hellenistic era (from Cyrene?). Author of Libyka in at least three books. The few preserved fragments display a rationalistic reshaping of mythology. A. apparently influenced the mythological handbook cited by Diod. Sic. 4,26,2-4 and used at 3,52 ff. (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεινίας; Deinías). From Argos, lived in the 3rd cent. BC; he was the author of Argoliká in at least nine books. They ranged in scope from extensive treatment of the mythical period to the battle of Cleonae ( c. 235), at which  Aratus [2] defeated the tyrant Aristippus of Argos (FGrH 306 F 5). His identity with the D. who murdered the tyrant Abantidas of Sicyon in 251/50 (T 1), is not established. FGrH 306 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Antander

(287 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄντανδρος; Ántandros). [German version] [1] of Syracuse Brother of Agathocles [2], end of the 4th cent. BC Brother of Agathocles [2]. At the beginning of the African campaign in 310 BC appointed ‘curator of Syracuse’ (Diod. Sic. 20,4,1) by his brother, whose life he later chronicled (Diod. Sic. 21,16,5), although Jacoby considers it a mere obituary. By some scholars, e.g. by Manni, A. is considered the author of the P Oxy. 2399 (FGrH 565 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Note siceliote, I: un frammento di Antandro?, in Kokalos 12, 1966, 163-171 K. Meister…

Logos

(3,385 words)

Author(s): Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) | Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[1] Philosophical [German version] A. Term The Greek noun lógos (λόγος) is derived from the verb légein, ‘say’. Greek philosophers made extensive use of it in a wide range of meanings: what has been said, word, assertion, definition, interpretation, explanation, reason, criterion, proportion, relation, argument, rational discourse. Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) [German version] B. Pre-Socratics Attempts to trace the use of the word in detail have proved to be unsuccessful. It is, however, evident that logos was already being used by the Pre-Socratics, chiefly in re…

Alcimus

(496 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
(Ἄλκιμος; Álkimos). [German version] [5] Latinus A. Alethius Rhetorician, writer of panagyrics and poet Appears as a famous rhetorician (probably based on a catalogue of model speeches from Bordeaux) in  Sidonius, where he is praised for his oratorical fortitudo: Epist. 5,10,3 (see Jer. Chron. a. Abr. 2371). Probably also the author of a rhetorical handbook that is otherwise no longer distinguishable (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8, 11, 2; in the same source: origin in Agen; concerning false identifications, see PLRE 2, Alethius 2, against [3…

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hosp…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Nereis

(102 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηρηίς/ Nērēís). Daughter of the Molossian king Pyrrhus II. In 233/2 BC, for dynastic reasons, Hiero [2] II married her to his son Gelo [2]; she bore three sons, including Hieronymus [3], and one daughter. The name of the queen is inscribed in the theatre of Syracuse (Syll.3 429). N. also had statues of her family erected at Delphi and Olympia (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, Gerone I…

Lanassa

(170 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα; Lánassa). [German version] [1] Ancestress of the Molossian dynasty Daughter of Cleodaeus, granddaughter of Hyllus, great-granddaughter of Hercules [1], ancestress of the Molossian dynasty of Epirus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,2; Lysimachus, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemus abducts her from the Zeus temple of Dodona, marries her and has eight children with her, among them Pyrrhus (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643 M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [German version] [2] Wife of Pyrrhus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 3rd cent. BC Daughter…

Theron

(366 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θήρων/ Thḗrōn). Tyrant of Acragas from the line of the Emmenids; he lived c. 540/530-472 BC. His children from his first marriage were Thrasydaeus and Demarete, the consort of Gelo [1]; from c. 485 BC T. was married a second time to a daughter of Polyzalus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 93; scholium Pind. Ol. 2,29b-d; see stemma in Deinomenids). T. gained control of Acragas in 488 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,53,1) and in 483 BC took the town of Himera by driving out Terillus (Hdt. 7,165); he entrusted the town to his son Thrasydaeus. The cry for help fro…

Pherecydes

(735 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φερεκύδης; Pherekýdēs). [German version] [1] P. of Syrus Mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC Greek mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC; according to an older tradition, he was a contemporary of Alyattes ( c. 605-560 BC; Pherecydes 7 A 2 DK; Acusilaus 9 A 1 DK), whilst according to another tradition, the acme of his career as a writer was in the 59th Olympiad (544-541 BC, so he would have been a contemporary of Cyrus [2]; Diog. Laert. 1,118 and 121; cf. Pherecydes 7 A 1 DK). According to Diog. Laert. 1,116, his book was still extant in the 3rd cent. AD; its title was probably Heptámych…

Xenomedes

(94 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενομήδης/ Xenomḗdēs) of Ceos. Logographer of the 5th cent. BC (Dion. Hal. de Thucydide 5). Author of a history of his home island (title unknown!), from which Callimachus [3] (Aetia 3, fr. 75 Pfeiffer) took the famous story of Acontius and Cydippe [1]. Other themes treated by X. are mentioned by Callimachus (fr. 75,54-77, also [1]). X. may also have been used by Aristotle [6] for his Keíōn politeía (fr. 511 Rose, cf. also 611,26-29). Logographos Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Huxley, Xenomedes of Keos, in: GRBS 6, 1965, 235-245. FGrH 442 with comm.
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