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Caiphas

(193 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Και(α)φᾶς, Cai(a)phâs). Joseph, with the epithet Caiphas (from Aramaic qayyāfā), was high priest of the Temple of Jerusalem (AD 18-36) and therefore the leader of the Sanhedrin ( Synhedrion), the highest Jewish authority for civil and political issues during Hellenistic and Roman times. As son-in-law of the high priest Ananus (or Annas, Hannas; AD 6-15), he belonged to one of the important families of priests that regularly occupied this office (Jo 18,13; also mPar 3,5 and tYev 1,10) [4. 234]. He was appointed by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus (AD 15-26), …

Mariamme

(392 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[German version] [1] Granddaughter of Aristobulus II. and Iohannes Hyrcanus II. (Hebrew Mirjam; the form Mariamne in Fr. Hebbel's drama is a corruption from later MSS). Granddaughter of Aristobulus [2] II. and Iohannes Hyrcanus [3] II. Born c. 53/52 BC, M. was a celebrated beauty. Married to Herod ( Herodes [1]) the Great, she became involved in the intrigues and conflicts between Hasmoneans and Herodeans. In 29 Herod had her executed on suspicion of unfaithfulness based on the calumnies of his sister Salome (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,218-236). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A…

Callirhoe

(335 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Καλλιρ[ρ]όη; Kallir(r)hóē, ‘the fair-flowing’). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus, wife of  Chrysaor [4], mother of  Geryoneus (Hes. Theog. 351; 979ff.; Apollod. 2.106; Hyg. Fab. 151). She appears in the circle of  Persephone (H. Hom. 5,419); also mentioned as wife of Manes or of Poseidon (Dion. Hal. Ant. 1.27.1; schol. Pind. O. 14.5). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Daughter of Achelous Daughter of Achelous, wife of  Alcmaeon [1], mother of Amphoterus and Acarnan (Apollod. 3.88ff.; Eur. Alcestis TGF fr. 79). Zingg, Reto (Basle) …

Proselytes

(559 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (προσήλυτος/ prosḗlytos, 'one that has arrived (to join the group)'; Latin proselytus). The first recorded use of the Greek term prosḗlytos is in the Septuagint as a translation of the Biblical concept gēr (a 'foreigner' resident in Israel and enjoying special legal status) [8. 40-45; 9. 51 ff.]. Towards the end of the epoch of the Second Temple (1st cent. AD), prosḗlytos then chiefly refers to a convert to Judaism (Jos. Ap. 2,28) [4. 60 ff.], who enjoyed almost the same rights within the Jewish community as one born a Jew [1. 60-123]. Ac…

Septuagint

(931 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] I. Origin According to the legend of the origin of the Septuagint, which is based on the so-called Letter of Aristeas [2] ([12. 20-37; 15. 677-687; 13]), king Ptolemy [3] II Philadelphus had the Pentateuch translated into Greek for his library by 70 (or 72; 70 = ἑβδομήκοντα/ hebdomḗkonta, Latin septuaginta interpretes, hence the name S./LXX) scholars over a period of 70 (or 72) days. The name then came to refer to the Greek translation of the entire Hebrew Bible including the Apocrypha (Apocryphal literature). This story is prob…

Salampsio

(108 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (from the Hebrew šelōmṣiyōn, Aramaic short form Šelamṣah, 'Peace of Zion'; Greek Σαλαμψιώ/ Salampsiṓ). Eldest daughter of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great and his Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1]; b. c. 33 BC. After Herod's brother Pheroras had refused marriage with her, in 20 BC, she wed her cousin Phasael II, son of Phasael [1] I, by whom she had five children (Herod IV, Alexander III, Antipater IV, Alexandra and Cyprus III) (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,7,6; 17,1,3; 18,5,4). Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) Bibliography N. Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty. Origins, Role in Society and Ec…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Phasaelis

(207 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Φασαηλίς/ Phasaēlís, Φασηλός/ Phasēlós, modern Ḫirbat Faṣāil). City founded by Herodes [1] I in memory of his elder brother Phasael [1] to the north of Jericho in the fertile Jordan rift valley, probably after 30 BC (Ios. Ant. Iud. 16,5,2; Ios. BI 1,21,9). Inherited after Herod's death by his sister Salome (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,8,1; Ios. BI 2,6,3), after her death P. became the property of Livia [2], wife of the emperor Augustus (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; Ios. BI 2,9,1). P. was known for it…

Machaerus

(270 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαχαιροῦς/ Machairoûs, Hebrew Mekawar, Mekabar). Fortress situated east of the Dead Sea in southern Peraea, on the border with the Nabataean kingdom ( Nabataei) which Alexander [16] Iannaeus (103-76 BC) had built (modern Ruǧm al-Mišnaqa). According to Plin. HN 5,16,72, M. was, apart from Jerusalem, the strongest fortress in Judea. M. was completely destroyed during the Roman campaign in 63 BC by Pompeius (Str. 16,763) and later by the proconsul of Syria Gabinius [I 2] (57-55 BC) (Jos…

Metatron

(323 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] One of the highest princes of angels in Jewish mystical literature. There are several etymological explanations for M.'s name. Odeberg [2. 137 ff.] had already pleaded for the Greek words metá and thrónos, ‘(he who sits)next to the throne (of God)’ (similarly [1]; negatively [5. 75]). In addition, a tradition of 70 secret names is linked with M. [3], including ‘Youth’, ‘Servant’, ‘Yahoel’ and ‘little Yahweh’. He is given a central role in late antique Hekhalot literature [5]. In the so-called Third Book of Enoch…

Zadokids

(283 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew benē Ṣādōq, 'sons of Zadok') is a term for the descendants of Zadok (a grandson of Aaron), one of the high priests in the Temple in Jerusalem at the time of  David [1] (2 Sam 15:24-37). In the pre-Exilic period (up to 586 BC), they had sole claim to the office of high priest (1 Kg 2:26 f.), and in the post-Exilic period (from 538 BC), they once again were able to prevail in the offices of priest and high priest (Ez 44:6-16; Priests III). In the post-Exilic period, the perform…

Zerubbabel

(281 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζοροβαβελ/ Zorobabel, LXX). The pseudepigraphic Hebrew Apocalypse of Z. (Apocalypses) was presumably written in Palestine (Palaestina) at the beginning of the 7th cent. AD and reflects Messianic expectations of the Jewish population, which - threatened by anti-Jewish Byzantine law - was hoping for a Persian conquest of Palestine (Persian-Byzantine Wars 604-630 AD; dating of the Apocalypse to the 4th or 5th cent.[1]). Embedded in a frame story, the revelation by Metatron (some MSS:…

Salome

(460 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Hebrew šelomṣiyōn, 'Peace of Zion', Aramaic short form šelamṣāh; Σαλώμη/ Salṓmē). [German version] [1] Sister of Herod [1] the Great, 2nd half, 1st cent. BC Sister of Herod (Herodes [1]) the Great ( c. 57 BC - AD 10). Until his death, she played an important role in factional intrigues at the Herodian court: she plotted against Herod's Hasmonaic wife Mariamme [1] I and their sons Alexander and Aristoboulus [4], likewise against her own husbands Iosephus [1] and Costobarus, who were executed (Jos. BI 1,441 ff.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1…

Menaḥem ben Yehuda

(282 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] Son (or grandson) of Judas Galileus, who (like his father Hezekiah) fought against Rome and Herod (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,6; 14,9,2) [2]. Judas is described by Iosephus [4] Flavius as the founder of the so-called fourth (nameless, later given the derogatory name of Sicarii, ‘Dagger Men’ = ‘Murderers’ [1. 50]) philosophical school, which differed from the Pharisaei mainly in its love of freedom and its struggle for the absolute rule of God (Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,1,1; 18,1,6) [3. 599; 1. 8…

Onias

(574 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Greek Ὀν(ε)ίας/ On(e)ías; Hebrew neḥonyah, ḥunyah, ḥoni); personal name, which was widespread in ancient Judaism ([9. vol. 2, 1394, 1455]; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,22; 25; 222; Jos. Ap. 2,49; Mishnah Taan 3,8). In the pre-Maccabaean period, bearers of this name included four Zadokid High Priests at the Temple of Jerusalem. The most important historical sources for the lineage of the Oniads are the Antiquitates Iudaicae of Iosephus [4] Flavius and 2 Macc. [German version] [1] O. I. High Priest, father of Simon the Just, 4th/3rd cents. BC (Late 4th cent. BC). Son of the High Priest Jaddu…

Zealots

(640 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[German version] (ζηλωταί/ zēlōtaí, from Greek ζηλοῦν/ zēloûn, 'strive after'). Political and religious group of Jews who rose against Roman rule in Palestine in the 1st cent. AD, primarily in the first Jewish-Roman War (Jewish Wars). The term 'Zealots' can be found in Iosephus [4] Flavius (BI 4,160f.; 7,268-270), whose Bellum Iudaicum (books 4-7) and Antiquitates form the most important historical sources for the Zealots' movement and ideology. The term is a translation of the Hebrew qannāīm ( qannā, 'eager', sc. for God, e.g. in the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhed…

Ezechiel

(409 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Prophet s. Propheten Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) [English version] [2] jüd.-hell. Tragödiendichter, 3. oder 2. Jh. v. Chr. (Ἐζεκίηλος, Εζεκιῆλος). Jüd.-hell. Tragödiendichter, der vermutlich in Alexandreia (anders [5]) lebte. Die Abfassung der Exagōgḗ, des einzigen bekannten Werkes des E., von dem fünf Fr. (269 Trimeter) erh. sind, ist auf den Zeitraum zw. ca. 240 v.Chr. ( terminus post quem: Entstehung der Septuaginta) und 100 v.Chr. ( terminus ante quem: Zeugnis des Alexandros [23] Polyhistor) zu datieren. Die erh. Verse (das umfangreichste Tra…

Fiscus Iudaicus

(227 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
[English version] Die der jüd. Bevölkerung nach der Eroberung Jerusalems (70 n.Chr.) durch Vespasianus auferlegte Sondersteuer von zwei Drachmen pro Kopf (Ios. bell. Iud. 7,218). Der f.I. löste die für den jüd. Tempel erhobene Halbschekel-Steuer ab und wurde als Strafmaßnahme empfunden, da er dem Tempel des Iuppiter Capitolinus in Rom zugeführt wurde. Unter Domitianus wurde der f.I. als Maßnahme zur Verhinderung von Konversionen rigoros eingezogen (Suet. Dom. 12,2) [3; 4; 7], aber bereits unter Nerva wurde die Einziehung gelockert [1; 4]. Die Erhebung des f.I. ist bis in die Mi…

Phokylides

(389 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φωκυλίδης). [English version] [1] Dichter aus Milet, um 540 v. Chr. Griech. Dichter aus Milet (Phryn. 336, p. 463 R.; Suda), der hexametrische und elegische Gnomen verfaßte (elegisch: Athen. 632d; beides: Suda φ 643), ca. 540 v.Chr. (Suda). Die Γνῶμαι ( Gnṓmai, Aphorismen) werden Ph. von vielen Autoren zugeschrieben (u.a. Platon, Aristoteles, Cicero, Strabon, Dion [I 3] Chrysostomos, Athenaios, Clemens von Alexandreia). Sie beginnen (wie die von Demodokos [2] von Leros) mit καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου (‘Auch dies sagt Ph.’). Sie sind in Hexam…

Mariamme

(355 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
[English version] [1] Enkelin des Aristobulos II. und des Iohannes Hyrkanos II. (hebr. Mirjam; die Form Mariamne in Fr. Hebbels Drama ist Korruptel späterer Hss.); Enkelin des Aristobulos [2] II. und des Iohannes Hyrkanos [3] II. Geb. um 53/52 v.Chr. wurde M., eine berühmte Schönheit, mit Herodes [1] d.Gr. verheiratet und geriet in die Intrigen und Konflikte zw.Hasmonäern und Herodeern. 29 ließ Herodes sie aufgrund der Verleumdungen seiner Schwester Salome wegen Verdachts der Untreue hinrichten (Ios. ant. Iud. 15,218-236). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. Scha…
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