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Vercellae

(257 words)

Author(s): Sartori, Antonio (Milan) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Chief town of the Libici (modern Vercelli) This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (Οὐερκέλλοι, Οὐερκέλλαι/ Ouerkélloi, -ai). Chief town of the Libici (Str. 5,1,12; Ptol. 3,1,36) on the right bank of the Sesites (modern Sesia), a right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Vercelli [1. 176; 2], probably originally founded by the Salluvii (Liv. 5,35,2; Plin. HN 3,124). No significant archaeological finds [3. 212]. It is not there but at V. [2] that Marius [I 1] is gen…

Gallia Cisalpina

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A. Location The Roman province in northern Italy borders on the Alps in the north and west, the Apennines in the south and the Adriatic in the east. Traversed by the Padus (Po) ( Gallia Transpadana to the north and Gallia Cispadana to the south of the Padus), Gallia Cisalpina (GC) was identified with the Po valley ( latissima pars Italiae, Tac. Hist. 1,70,1). In antiquity the geomorphological structure of GC was in many respects quite different from today, especially with regard to the riverbeds of the Padus (which ran further south) and the Atesis …

Cameria, Camerium

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Aborigines and Prisci Latini, colony of Alba Longa; seized by Tarquinius Priscus; destroyed 502 BC by the consul Opiter Verginius Tricostus. Listed by Pliny (HN 3,68) as one of the Latian towns that had disappeared by his time. The gens Coruncania came from C. (Tac. Ann. 11,24,2). Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 563.

Atina

(166 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa)
[German version] [1] City of the Volsci in Latium City of the Volsci in Latium at the source of the Melpis, on the via Latina between Casinum and Sora, today A. (Frosinone). Praefectura (Cic. Planc. 8), then municipium of the tribus Teretina. Monuments: parts of the city wall, remains of an ancient building below S. Marco, Roman mosaic, aqueduct. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography NSA 1950, 108ff. E. Beranger, A. Sorrentino, La cinta muraria di Atina, 1979 E. Beranger, Testimoni archeologici dall'agro Atestino, in: Doc. Alb. s.2, II (1980), 75-93 H. Solin, Iscrizioni, in: E…

Padus

(427 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] The largest river in Italy, present-day Po, which was equated with the mythical Eridanus ( fluminum rex Eridanus, Verg. G. 1,482; sacer Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 12,696; pater Eridanus, Sil. Pun. 4,691); it was known locally as P. and Bodincus (Metrodorus FGrH 184 F 8). It flows for a distance of 570 km from west to east through the whole of Gallia Cisalpina (Pianura Padana) which it divides into Cispadana in the south and Transpadana in the north. (The regional reforms of Augustus created Liguria and Aemilia in …

Igilium

(123 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the promonturium Argentarium, modern Giglio. Settled since the Neolithic, I. belonged to the territory of the colonia of  Cosa and in 49 BC was part of the property of the Domitii, who equipped a fleet against Massilia there (Caes. B Civ. 1,34,3). Regarding maritime traffic cf. the corpus codicariorum (CIL XI 2643). Due to its remoteness and dense forests, I. was used as a refuge by the Romans in the time of Alarich [2] (Rut. Namat. 1,325). Archaeology: a splendid villa near the port, another near Campese; Etruscan and Roman remain…

Lanuvium

(218 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium Town in Latium in the southern foothills of the Alban hills, 18 miles from Rome on the via Appia, modern Lanuvio. Participated in the foedus Cassianum of 493 BC. Loyal to Rome during the Latin War of 340 ( Latin League), L. received the civitas Romana; municipium (338 BC; Liv. 8,14,2), possibly tribus Maecia. Birth-place of the emperors Antoninus Pius and Commodus. The modern settlement is located on top of the ancient town; only the arx (‘castle’), surrounded by a tuff wall, on the hill of…

Ad Flexum

(116 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Roman road station Roman road station (  statio ) between  Brixia and  Beneventum (It. Burd. 558,9). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 981. [German version] [2] Statio, San Pietro in Fine   Statio , named after the curve in the via Latina between  Casinum and  Venafrum, at the 96th milestone near Ad Flexum (CIL X 6901); today San Pietro in Fine (Caserta). Strategically significant, dominated by walls in a polygonal pattern near San Eustachio and Marena-Falascosa, in opus quadratum and incertum near Muraglie Abbandonate. Uggeri, Giovanni (Flo…

Salinae

(172 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
A number of towns or townships in Italy had this name, derived from the production of salt there. [German version] [1] Town on the Adriatic coastal road S. is recorded in Tab. Peut. (5,1; cf. Geogr. Rav. 327; [1]) as on the Adriatic coastal road 5 Roman miles north of Ostia Aterni (modern Pescara) and 13 Roman miles south of Hadria on the left bank of the River Salino, which, formed by the confluence of the Tavo and the Fino, marked the border between the Vestini and the Praetuttii, near modern Montesilvano Marina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Place south of Mons Garganus Place…

Rosea Rura

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Plain in Sabine territory near Reate (also Rosea, Varro Rust. 2,7,6; 3,2,9; 3,17,6; Rosia, ibid. 3,2,10; Ager Rosulanus, Serv. Aen. 7,712); the most fertile soils in the whole of Italy were there (Varro Rust. 1,7,10). Fest. 355,3 derives the term from arva rore humida ('land moist with dew'). The region was drained in 272 BC under the censor M'. Curius [4] Dentatus by constructing a canal between Lacus Velinus and the Nar, and was thus made agriculturally useful (Cic. Att. 4,15,5). The RR was used for breeding horses, whi…

Pandateria

(90 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Πανδατερία/ Pandatería). Island in the mare Tyrrhenum (Str. 2,5,19; 5,3,6), modern Ventotene (Latina), west of Cyme [2] and south of Caieta, between the insulae Pontiae (Pontia) and Pithecussae. Iulia [6], Agrippina [2], Octavia [3], the wife of the emperor Nero, and Flavia [3] were exiled there. Extant remains include a villa, an aqueduct, a cistern, a fishpond as well as port facilities. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C.M. Amici, F. Cifarelli et al., Ventotene: documentazione archeologica, in: G.M. De Rossi (ed.), Le isole Pontine attraverso i …

Cominium

(104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium adiectum; the modern Val di Comino to the north of  Atina [1] (perhaps San Donato). During the 3rd Samnite War in 293 BC conquered by consul Sp. Carvilius Maximus (Liv. 10,39-44) and destroyed (perhaps in 291 by consul L. Postumius Megellus: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 16,4,5). Probably not to be identified with C. Ceritum (Ocritum?), where Hanno learned of the defeat at  Beneventum in 212 BC (Liv. 25,14,14). Plin. HN 3,108 lists C. among the ruined towns of the Aequiculi. CIL X p. 507, 5143-56. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 669 G. Devoto, Gli A…

Oglasa

(55 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Italian mainland (Plin. HN 3,80), probably Montecristo (province of Livorno), a granite outcrop (10.4 km2, alt. 645 m) to the south of Ilva; the Mons Christi inhabited by monks in the 6th cent. AD (Greg. M. Epist. 1,49). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 320-324.

Metaurus

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] see Mataurus see Mataurus Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] River in Italy (Liv. 27,47; Mataurus, Tab. Peut. 5,2). River rising in the Umbrian Apennines, flowing past Tifernum and Urbinum through the Ager Gallicus and into the Adriatic to the south of Fanum Fortunae, modern Metauro. In 207 BC it was on the M. that the battle between the Romans and Hasdrubal [3] took place. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography N. Alfieri, La battaglia del M., 1994.

Mons Garganus

(115 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape, forested in ancient times (Hor. Carm. 2,9,7; Hor. Epist. 2,1,202; Sil. 8,629), in Apulia on the eastern coast of Italy, isolated mountainous massif (1065 m high), called Ἀρίονος ὄρος/ Aríonos óros (‘Mountain of Arion’) in Scyl. 14, today Promontorio del Gargano. The MG was an important landmark for maritime navigation and for geographers. To the north were the Lacus Pantanus (modern Lago di Lesina) and the Sinus Urias (modern Lago di Várano) with Uria [3], off the coast the Insulae Diomedeae (modern Trem…

Caenina

(81 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, probably near Antemnae, inhabited by Siculi and Aborigines; legend has it that Romulus captured and destroyed the town, then ruled by King Acro; Romulus was also supposedly the first to sacrifice   spolia opima to Jupiter Feretrius. There is documentary evidence for the Caeninenses sacerdotes in imperial Rome, but the town itself had disappeared at the latest by the time of Pliny the Elder (HN 3,68). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 560 Ruggiero, 2, 10.

Ilva

(152 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum, off the coast of Populonia (Αἰθάλη; Aithálē, Αἰθαλία; Aithalía: Hecat. FGrH 1 F 59; Ps.-Scyl. 6), modern Elba. The limḕn Argôios (λιμὴν Ἀργῷος) is supposed to have been founded by the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; others trace the name back to the white colour of the beach). Settled since the Neolithic. I. was famous for its iron mines, which had been exploited since Etruscan times (smelting slag on Pithecussae and at Populonia). In 453 BC, I. was briefly occupied by Syracusae (Dio…

Opitergium

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae | Batavian Revolt Settlement of the Veneti in the lower reaches of the Piave, inhabited from the Bronze Age, linked to the Adriatic by a canal (Str. 5,1,8). O. was municipium of the tribus Papiria ( lex Iulia); later incorporated into the regio X Venetia. As a junction on the via Postumia, it was connected to the city of Concordia; today Oderzo, province of Treviso. O. took the side of Caesar against the Senate, and was rewarded with tax exemption. Archaeological remains: forum, domus with polychrome mosaics (…

Insula Columbaria

(18 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the mare Tyrrhenum near Ilva (Plin. HN 3,81). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Castrum

(279 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] C. Inui Town of the Rutuli (Sil. Pun. 8,359) in the centre of Latium, founded by the kings of Alba Longa (Verg. Aen. 6,775). Abandoned in the archaic period, often confused with C. Novum in Etruria (Rut. Namat. 1,227). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografica-antiquaria della Carta de' Dintorni di Roma 1, 1848, 440 Nissen 2, 579 O. Toti, 1984. [German version] [2] C. Novum Settlement on the southern coast of Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus …

Dolates

(47 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Members of a community in the regio VI, called Sallentini in the Augustan list (Plin. HN 3,113), because in 266 BC they were deported to Umbria from Soletum in Calabria (Liv. Ep. 15; Eutr. 2,17). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 1, 543 n. 2.

Algae

(22 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version]   Statio in  Etruria, between  Centumcellae and  Graviscae, by the sea (It. Ant. 498,5 f.), not located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Ulubrae

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township in Latium, municipium of the tribus Pomptina, colony of the Triumviri (Triumvirate), later abandoned owing to its unhealthy location on the edge of the Pomptinae paludes ( Ager Pomptinus ) at modern Sermoneta and Cisterna di Latina (Cic. Fam. 7,12,2; 7,18,3; Hor. Epist. 1,11,30;  Juv. 10,102; Plin.  HN 3,64; Porphyrio ad Hor. epist. 1,11,30). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 637.

Vesidia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tyrrhenian coastal river in Regio VII between Pisae and Luna [3], modern Vezza. It gave its name to the modern region of Versilia. Its location between Vada Volaterrana and Velinae (mistake for Velatrae, cf. Volaterrae), as recorded in Tab. Peut. 4,2, is incorrect. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Fulginiae

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) on the via Flaminia on the eastern edge of the plain of the Topino and Clitumno ( lacus Clitorius), modern Foligno (Perugia). Conquered by Rome in 295 BC, praefectura, later municipium, tribus Cornelia. Without walls F. suffered in the Perusinian War; the town was abandoned in the 5th cent. AD in favour of the hill of San Valentino di Civitavecchia. Iron Age and Roman remains: amphitheatre, arch, thermae near Santa Maria del Sasso, necropoleis near Santa Maria in Campis, villa (Palace of …

Ardea

(272 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae | Latini, Latium City of the Rutuli in Latium on the via Ardeatina (Fest. 356,20), c. 4.5 km from the coast, c. 35.5 km from Rome, at the foot of   mons Albanus , today A. (previously Casalazzara and Pomezia). Linked with the legend of  Aeneas. Mentioned in the 1st Roman-Carthaginian treaty (Pol. 3,22,11); member of the  Latin League (Cato fr. 58); from 442 BC colonia Latina (Liv. 4,9-11); declined during the late republican period. Acropolis with remains from…

Septem Maria

(87 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Area of lagoons (seven at the time of naming) at the mouths of the Padus and the Atesis (Plin. HN. 119f.), modern Laguna Veneta in the Atria region, enhanced by the Etrusci with the waters of the Sagis, and still navigable in the Roman Imperial period, partly by means of fossae, between Ravenna and Altinum. Statio on the Via Popilia to the east of Atria (It. Ant. 126,6; Tab. Peut. 4,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Bosio, I S. M., in: Archeologia Veneta 2, 1979, 33-44.

Lautulae

(89 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Strategically important narrow pass ( saltus) above Tarracina (in Latium) between the mountain range and a steep headland above the sea (Liv. 7,39,7; 22,15,11). The Romans were defeated there in 315 BC by the Samnites (Liv. 9,23,4; Diod. Sic. 19,72). From 312 onwards the steep via Appia led over it. Trajan had 128 feet of the height - measured from the base of the cliff - chopped off and the road built in the plain along the sea; modern Piscomontano. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 642.

Laterium

(33 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Villa in the region of Arpinum west of the Liris near Cereatae (Cic. Att. 4,7,3; 10,1,1; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,4; 3,1,4; 3,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 674.

Spina

(237 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Barrier in a Roman circus Term for the massive elongated barrier that divided a Roman circus into two tracks running in opposite directions. A spina was usually walled and variously decorated (e.g. with statues); at its ends stood the metae (Meta [2]) that marked the turning point of the running track. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography J. Humphrey, Roman Circuses, 1986, Index s. v. S. [German version] [2] City at the mouth of the Spines This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization Etruscan city at the mouth of th…

Arpinum

(162 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Hill town of the  Volsci in the central Liris valley, modern Arpino (Frosinone); Roman   praefectura from 305 BC (Liv. 9,44,16), from 90 BC   municipium of the tribus Cornelia, regio I, birth place of Marius and Cicero. Simple Volscian fortifications are extant at Civita Falconiera, also a strong Roman walled circle (3 km in diameter; polygonal stonework), including a monumental gate with a pointed arch. Remains of a temple (possibly of Mercurius Lanarius) underneath the church of S. Maria; remains of another b…

Tiber

(606 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Τίβερις/ Tíberis, modern Tevere). River in central Italy (403 km long, 17,169 km2 catchment area). Other names: Albula (Serv. Aen. 8,332: from the Latin albus, 'white'; cf. Liv. 1,3; Plin. HN 3,53), Rumon (Serv. Aen. 8,63; 8,90), Serra (Serv. Aen. 8,63), Thybris (Verg. Aen. 2,782; 3,500); called flavus ('yellow') in Verg. Aen. 7,31 for the great quantity of eroded soil it bore (on Tiberinus, god of the T., cf. Varro, Ling. 5,71; Serv. Aen. 8,31). It rises in the Appenines (Appenninus) on Monte Fumaiolo at 1,268 m above sea le…

Hernici

(186 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Italian people in Latium on the  Liris and its tributary Trerus or Tolerus (modern Sacco); here lay Anagnia, Ferentinum and Frusino on the via Latina, and further inland Verulae, Aletrium and Capitulum Hernicum. Possibly attested from the beginning of the Iron Age, they appear to have been the oldest Italian people who immigrated to Latium, possibly in connection with the migrations of the Sabini (Serv. Aen. 7,684) or Marsi (Paul Fest. 89 L.). Laevus Cispius of Anagnia supported Tullus Hostilius against …

Tetrica mons

(46 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mountain in the Appenninus (Varro Rust. 2,1,5; Verg. Aen. 7,713) to the north of the Via Salaria, which separates the fourth (Nursia der Sabini) and fifth (Asculum in Picenum) regio nes, modern Monti Sibillini (up to 2476 m high). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Truentus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Truentinus). River in Picenum (Picentes), modern Tronto. It rises in the Appenninus (on mons Fiscellus, modern Gran Sasso), flows parallel to the via Salaria past Badies (not located), ad Martis (not located), Surpicanum (not located), ad Centesimum (modern Centesimo), ad Aquas (modern Acquasanta Terme),  Asculum (modern Ascoli) and, navigable only in this area, into the sea near Truentum to the south of modern San Bendetto. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Butunti

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Peucetii at the crossroads of the via Gellia and the via Traiana between Rubi and Barium (It. Ant. 117; It. Burd. 609) where the church of San Pietro sopra Minerva conceals a temple to Minerva, now Bitonto. Municipium of regio II: Plin. HN 3,105; Mart. 2,48,7. Minting in the 3rd cent. BC [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 HN 46 2 V. Acquafredda, Bitonto attraverso i secoli, 1937 3 F. P. Palmieri, Manufatti di età preclassica, in: Studi Bitontini 18-19, 1975-76; 32f., 1980-81 53-82 4 M. R. Depalo, 1984 5 BTCGI 4, 67-80.

Sentinum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria (Σέντινον; Séntinon). City in Umbria on the left-hand tributary of the Aesis of the same name; municipium , Regio VI (Str. 5,2,10; Plin. HN 3,114; Ptol. 3,1,53), tribus Lemonia [1. 274], remains 1.5 km to the northeast of Sassoferrato. The Romans won a victory there in 295 BC in a battle deciding the Third Samnite War (Pol. 2,19,6; Liv. 10,17 ff.) and therefore built a sanctuary at Civitalba (temple terracottas, 3rd century BC). In 41 BC S. was destroyed by Q.…

Vettona

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Umbria on a hill on the left side of the Tiberis between Tuder and Perusia, modern Bettona. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina [1. 271]. Walls in opus quadratum (Masonry); necropoleis from the 4th cent. BC until the 2nd cent. AD. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 L. R. Taylor, The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic, 1960. G. Becatti , Nota topografica sulle mura di Bettona, in: SE 8, 1934, 397-400  C. Pietrangeli, s. v. Bettona, EAA 2, 76.

Verrugo

(116 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volsci border city in Latium, which changed owners several times - occupied and fortified by the Romans in 445 BC (Liv. 4,1,4), reconquered by the Volsci in 422, conquered again by the Romans in 409 (Liv. 4,55,8), reconquered by the Volsci in 407 (Liv. 4,58,3). In 394 V. found itself in Roman hands again (Liv. 5,28,6). The place name can be derived from Latin verruca = locus editus asperque = 'high-lying rough place' (Cato in Gell. NA 3,7,6; cf. Diod. Sic. 14,11; a place name occurring from Tridentum to Eryx [1] in Sicily). Location uncertain, po…

Fidentia

(127 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Augural name of a town in the western Aemilia ( regio VIII) on the via Aemilia (It. Ant. 288; It. Burd. 616; Tab. Peut. 4,3) on the crossing of the river Stirone, in the Middle Ages Borgo San Donnino, from 1927 Fidenza (Parma). It was founded as a municipium in the 2nd cent. BC; during the Civil War, it was besieged by Lucullus in 82 BC (Plut. Sulla 17; Vell. Pat. 2,28; Liv. Epit. 88). It later declined to become vicus Fidentiola (It. Ant. 99; 127). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Aimi, Storia di F., 1982 M. Calvani Marini, F., 1977 M. Catarsi, Il territorio fidenti…

Togisonus

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia (Plin. HN 3,121), probably arising from the confluence of the Retron (modern Retrone) and the Astagus (modern Astico) in the area of Vicetia (modern Vicenza) with other rivers to the north of thr Atesis; modern Bacchiglione. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. B. Castiglioni, Abbozzo di una carta dell'antica idrografia nella pianura tra Vicenza e Padova, in: P. Innocenti (ed.), Scritti geografici. FS A. Sestini, vol. 1, 1982, 183-197.

Numicus

(144 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also Numicius). Minor river in Latium Vetus, where Aeneas [1] was said to have landed; the place was named Troy and consecrated to Sol Indiges. According to CIL XIV 2065, the N. was in territorio Lavinas (‘in the territory of Lavinium’). There was a heroon of Aeneas there (Serv. Aen. 7,150). The Iuturna, whose waters were taken to Rome and used in sacrifices to Vesta (Serv. Aen. 12,139), rose nearby. Anna Perenna was described as nympha Numici (Ov. Fast. 3,653). Identification of the N. is not certain: it may be the Fosso di Pratica di Mare (Pomezia, pro…

Nepete

(126 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae (Νέπητα; Népēta). Etruscan town east of Sutrium on the via Amerina (Tab. Peut. 5,3), modern Nepi (Province Viterbo). In 383 (Liv. 6,21,4) or 373 BC (Vell. Pat. 1,14,2), it became a colonia Latina, later municipium, possibly tribus Stellatina; ethnikon Nepesinus. Cults: Diana, Ceres, Augustales. N. was located on a wedge-shaped terrace between two gorges. Settlement and necropolis date to the 8th cent. BC. Chamber tombs with dromos, tuff walls from the beg…

Hispellum

(128 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae Town in Umbria on a rise of Monte Subasio, modern Spello. Settled since the 7th cent. BC, connected to the via Flaminia, municipium, Tribus Lemonia, Colonia Iulia (possibly since the Second Triumvirate).The source of the  Clitumnus lay in the territory of H. (Plin. Ep. 8,8,6). Under Constantinus the town was Colonia Flavia Constans with a temple of the Gens Flavia and had the privilege of celebrating annually an Umbrian festival (ILS 705 of 333/337). Archaeology: remains o…

Abellinum

(169 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town of the  Hirpini in  Campania, on the border of southern Samnium ( Samnites), close to the modern Cività. A colonia under Sulla, Augustus, and Severus Alexander, it rose to   civitas , tribus Galeria. A. is situated on a terrace on the left bank of the Sabato river, west of Atripalda. Two wall circuits are preserved ( opus quadratum, 3rd cent. BC, opus reticulatum with towers and moats of the Augustan colony), also baths, houses, an amphitheatre south of the town outside the walls; aqueduct to …

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Treba

(69 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Aequi in the Colles Simbruini (modern Simbruini Mountains) in the valley of the upper Anio; modern Trevini nel Lazio, 821 m elevation; municipium of Regio I (Plin. HN 3,64), tribus Aniensis; ethnicon Trebani (ILS 6264;  cf.  Ptol. 3,1,62; Frontin.  Aq. 93,3: T. Augusta). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Quilici Gigli, Appunti di topografia per la storia di Trevi nel Lazio, in: MEFRA 99, 1987, 129-69.

Furfo

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Vicus of the Vestini ( regio IV) on the upper reaches of the Aternus (Pescara), in the territorium of Peltuinum (CIL IX 3524), and near the church of Santa Maria di Furfona, 15 km south-east of L'Aquila; administered by two aediles. Cult of Jupiter Liber (58 BC; CIL I2, 756). Located on the road between Prifernum and Peltuinum, later named via Claudia Nova. Inscriptions: CIL IX p. 333, 3513-3568. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 442 Ruggiero 3, 1922, 353, s.v. F.

Lorium

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia, 12 miles outside Rome (It. Ant. 290; Tab. Peut. 5,5), modern La Bottaccia near Castel di Guido. Antoninus Pius died here in his villa (SHA Antoninus Pius 1,8; 12,6). Marcus [2] Aurelius also stayed here (Fronto, Ad Marcum 2,15; 3,20; 5,7). An episcopal see in the 5th cent. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli (ed.), La via Aurelia, 1968.

Rufrae, Rufrium

(129 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement in Samnium (cf. Rufrani vicani, ILS 80; 5759), conquered by the Romans early in the 2nd Samnite War in 326 BC (Liv. 8,25,4: Rufrium; Sil. Pun. 8,568), subsequently named castellum Campaniae (Serv. Aen. 7,739) and tribus Teretina (CIL X 4836), on the Via Latina. R. is situated on the middle reaches of the Volturnus in the region of San Felice a Ruvo, west of Presenzano (province of Caserta); remains of a small Roman theatre and statues of Augustus and Agrippa have been found there. Cato praises oil presses from R. (Cato Agr. 22,4; 135,2: ad Rufri Maceriam). …

Minio

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in southern Etruria, modern Mignone, the border between Tarquinia and Caere (Serv. Aen. 10,183; Munio, Rut. Namat. 1,279). Crossed by the Via Aurelia at the confluence of the Graviscae and the Centumcellae. Etruscan fortifications at a Bronze Age settlement above Stazione di Monte Romano, Luni sul Mignone. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 308; 2, 332 L. Banti, Il mondo degli Etruschi, 1969, 61f. BTCGI 9, 287-291.

Fossa

(651 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] F. Augusta Navigable  canal between the Padus and the harbour of Ravenna (Plin. HN 3,119); under Augustus diverted via the Padusa, a marshy branch of the Po. Statio on the via Popilia, later Augusta; traces in the Valle Mezzano in the drained Laguna di Comacchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, Un insediamento a carratere industriale. Relazione preliminare degli scavi sull'argine d'Agosta 1971-1973, in: Boll. annuale. Centro di ... Musei Ferraresi 3, 1973, 174-179. [German version] [2] F. Claudia Navigable  canal, built by Claudius be…

Aternus

(63 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (CIL IX 3337-8), flanked by the via Claudia Nova from Amiternum to its confluence with the Tirinus, and by the via Claudia Valeria (CIL IX 5973) to Ostia Aternus (port of the Vestini, vicus and mansio at the junction with the coastal road along the Adriatic, modern Pescara). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Bibl. Top. 13, 1994, 477-488.

Flavinium

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the regio VII (Etruria) at the southern foot of the  Soracte (Verg. Aen. 7,696; Serv. Aen. ad 1; Sil. 8,490) where according to Sil. 13,85 the Capenas (modern Gramiccia?) caused floods. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with s…

Aquae

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
I. Italy [German version] A. Albulae Sulphurous sources of the Lago della Soforata on the right bank of the  Anio, 16 km from Rome; cult site. The springs are cold and have healing properties;  Nero had them canalized into the Domus Aurea. Large Roman   villa near Bagni della Regina. CIL XIV 3908-18. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Angae In Bruttium between Consentia and Vibo Valentia, today Terme Caronte of Lamezia Terme. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] A. Apollinares Thermal springs between Careiae and  Tarquinii (It. Ant. 300); unidentified (…

Caieta

(191 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the foothills of the same name which form the western end of the sinus Caietanus or Formianus; modern Gaeta (province of Latina). It was reputedly named after either  Aeetes, the father of Medea (Lycoph. 1274), or the wet-nurse of  Aeneas [1], who was supposedly buried there (Verg. Aen. 7,1-7), or after the shoals in its bay (Laconian καιέτας, Str. 5,3,6); temple of Apollo (Liv. 40,2,4). In Roman times, it was a health resort, same as Formiae (four miles away), with villae and attached mausolea. C. was also the location of the villae of S…

Tarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Padus (modern Po), modern Taro (126 km long). It rises in the Ligurian Appenninus and flows through Forum Novum; it was crossed by the Via Aemilia  (where the Ad Tarum road station was: It. Burd. 616,14) and into the Padus at Parma [1]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Frigidus

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the river Sontius in East Venetia, modern Vipacco/Wippach, also a station on the via Gemina, 36 miles east of Aquileia (It. Ant. 18), modern Aidussina/Haidenschaft. Here, Theodosius defeated the usurper Eugenius in AD 394 (Claud. De III consulatu Honorii 99). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Gallunianum

(66 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praedium (estate) in Etruria, then a centre of settlement with ecclesia, modern Galognano near Siena, mentioned in inscriptions on liturgical silver objects (6th cent. AD, now in the Pinacoteca of Siena). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography O. von Hessen, W. Kurze, C. A. Mastrelli, Il tesoro ecclesiastico di Galognano, 1977 M. M. Mango, Silver from Early Byzantium, 1986, 250-254 S. A. Boyd, M. M. Mango, Ecclesiastical Silver Plate, 1992, 134.

Sabinum

(239 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Country estate of the poet Horace (Horatius [7], cf. Hor. Carm. 2,18,14; Hor. Epist. 1,16), probably a gift from Maecenas [2] (Hor. Sat. 2,3,305 ff.). It was located in the territory of the Sabini on the stream Digentia (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104; present-day Licenza), a right tributary of the Anio, north of Varia (present-day Vicovaro) from where the estate obtained agrarian products (Hor. Carm. 1,20,1; 22,9; 2,18,14; 3,1,47; 4,22; Hor. Sat. 2,7,118), above the village of Mandela (Hor…

Buxentum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae Town in Lucania, modern Policastro Bussentino (Salerno province) at the Gulf of Policastro. It succeeded the Greek settlement of Pyxus (coins minted in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC: HN 83), was newly founded under Micythus of Messene in 471 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,59,4; Str. 6,1,1), and subsequently left to the Lucani. Roman colonia in 194 BC, renewed in 186 BC (Liv. 32,29,4; 34,45,2; 39,22,4), in 89 BC municipium of the tribus Pomptina. Bishop's seat in AD 592. Both the river, which d…

Rapinium

(29 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small site fit for landing ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 498,6 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Centumcellae and Graviscae, modern Bagni Sant'Agostino. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Minturnae

(434 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae | Coloniae Chief town of the Aurunci (Ausones), 97 miles from Rome, on both banks, connected by a ford, of the lower Liris, which formed the border between Latium and Campania, in a broad coastal plain on the Gulf of Formiae (modern Gulf of Gaeta) to the east of where the via Appia emerges from the narrow strip of land between the Aurunci mountains and the sea. M. and its port facilities were the trading centre of the region. M. is first menti…

Piscinae

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the via Aurelia between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae on the Tyrrhenian coast of Etruria (Tab. Peut. 4,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.

Intercisa

(301 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Military camp in Pannonia inferior Military camp, toll station and civilian settlement near the limes of Pannonia inferior on the Aquincum - - Altinum - Mursa road (It. Ant. 245,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,25f.; 38), modern Dunaújváros, district of Fejér in Hungary. This fortification, which was originally made of wood and earth, was probably built by the ala I Augusta Ituraeorum sagittariorum in the late Flavian period. A military base of the ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica (AD 105-106), the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana (until 118/9) and the ala I Thracum veteranoru…

Ad Fines

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version]   Statio on the   via Aurelia between  Vada Volaterrana and  Pisae on the small river Fine which, at the time of the Roman Republic, formed the northern border of Italy (Tab. Peut. 4,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 71.

Forum

(8,477 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Archaeology and urban studies [German version] A. Definition and Function Latin term for market, market place; rarely also the forecourt of a tomb (in the meaning of Greek drómos, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,61) or part of a wine press (Varro, Rust. 1,54; Columella 11,2,71). As the mercantile and administrative centre of a Roman city ( Town/City), the forum, which took the form of a large open space framed by buildings, was essentially the equivalent of the Greek  agora. A location at the intersection of the   decumanus and   cardo in the city centre is the rule in …

Hesperia

(112 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἑσπερία; Hespería). Ancient name of Italia, characterized from the Greek view as ‘land in the west’ after the geographic location of the peninsula (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35,3). Judging from the  Tabula Iliaca , it was used by Stesichorus perhaps as early as the 6th cent. BC. Since then the name H. has continually been used in poetry (cf. Hor. Carm. 3,6,8). With increasing geographical knowledge, for the same reason, H. signified Spain (Suda s.v. Ἱσπανία), which was sometimes called H. ultima by way of distinction (cf. Hor. Carm. 36,4; Serv. Aen. 1,530). Uggeri, Giovann…

Lacus Prelius

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Coastal lake in Etruria (Cic. Mil. 74; Prile, Plin. HN 3,51) between Vetulonia and Rusellae (the remnants of which can still be seen in the Padule di Raspollino), with a station ad lacum Aprilem of the via Aurelia (It. Ant. 229; 500; Tab. Peut. 4,3). It was fed by the Bruna, which emptied into the mare Tyrrhenum at Castiglione della Pescaia (province of Grosseto). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Nersae

(87 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Vicus of the Aequiculi ( regio IV) in the upper Himella (the modern Salto) valley, referred to in Verg. Aen. 7,744 as montosae Nersae (‘mountainous Nersae’), the modern Civitella di Nesce. For the place name, see Nursia. After 49 BC, N. probably became part of the res publica Aequiculanorum ( tribus Fabia). Inscriptions refer to a forum, theatre and a Mithraeum. Remains: aqueduct, rock tombs. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Z. Mari, s.v. Nersae, EV 3, 709f.

Sutrium

(198 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Coloniae City in southern Etruria (Etruscan su θ ri) on a tuff spur (291 m high) between the Cimini and the Sabatini mountains (Str. 5,2,9), modern Sutri. The site was settled from the 10th cent. BC onwards. Conquered by Furius [I 13] Camillus in 394 BC after the fall of Veii, S. was a Latin colonia from 383 BC (Vell. 1,14,2; Liv. 27,9,7; 29,15,5; Diod. Sic. 14,117,4), later a municipium. In the 1st cent. BC colonia coniuncta Iulia Sutrina, tribus Papiria (CIL XI 3254; Plin. HN 3,51). Archaeo…

Caprasia

(50 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Etruscan island between Populonia and  Corsica (Capraria, Αἰγίλιον; Aigílion, Plin. HN 3,81), modern Capraia, province of Livorno. Magnificent Roman villa near Assunta, inhabited by monks in the 5th cent. (Rut. Namat. 1,439; Oros. 7,36,5; Aug. Epist. 48). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Riparbelli, Aegilon, 1973 BTCGI 4, 443-445.

Alma

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in  Etruria in the region of  Vetulonia (It. Ant. 500,5 f.); flows from Monte d'Alma into the Gulf of Follònica; today Fosso Alma. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Tadinae

(80 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Municipium in Umbria (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Sant'Antonio della Rasina to the west of Gualdo Tadino. Road station on the via Flaminia. In 552 AD Narses [4] defeated the Goth Totila at T. (Proc. BG 4,29). Later abandoned in favour of the higher-lying Gualdo. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Sigismondi, La battaglia tra Narsete e Totila, in: Bolletino della Deputazione di Storia Patria dell'Umbria 65, 1968, 5-68.

Avens

(41 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Sabinum, rising at Mt Fiscellus near  Nursia (Plin. HN 3,109). The   via Salaria followed the course of the river from Falacrinae via Interocrium and Cutilia to Reate, where it joined the Velinus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Dianium

(48 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small island in the mare Tyrrhenum opposite  Cosa in Etruria, named Artemisia by the Greeks because of its crescent shape (Plin. HN 3,81), mod. Giannutri (Prov. Grosseto). Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. C. Bronson, G. Uggeri, in: Studii etruschi 36, 1970, 201-214 BTCGI 8, 108-114.

Fabrateria

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] F. Vetus Town of the Hernici on the Trerus (modern Sacco) near Frosinone ( Frusino) in Latium adiectum ( regio I), called F. Vetus from the end of the 2nd cent. BC, near the church of Santa Maria del Fiume near Ceccano (cf. CIL X p. 552, 5647-5661; EEpigr 8, 888f.). As a Volscian town, it was involved in Rome's disputes with the Samnites (Liv. 8,19,1) in 330. Initially civitas sine suffragio, then municipium, tribus Tromentina (CIL X 5657); under dictatores, later administered by IV viri and decuriones. Cult of Ceres and Hercules. Centuriation area. Uggeri, Giovanni (…

Tiliaventum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Venetia, modern Tagliamento (Geogr. Rav 4,36: Taliamentum). It rises in the Alpes Carnicae, flows through Iulium Carnicum, Osopus (modern Osoppo), Reunia (Ragogna), Apicilia (Latisanotta) and into the Adriatic between Concordia (Concordia Sagittaria) and Aquileia [1]. Wood was floated on the T. from the mountains to the sea; it is hence conceivable that the name of the river derives from Latin tilia, 'lime'. Plin. HN 3,126 distinguishes the T. Maius and the T. Minus (modern Fella), its left-hand tributary. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Ved…

Vitellia

(172 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2], 1st cent. AD Daughter of the emperor Vitellius [II 2] who married her to Valerius [II 2] Asiaticus, governor of the province of Belgica in the year AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 1,59,2). After the death of her father, she was spared  by Vespasian and married to a person of high social status. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Raepsaet-Charlier 640, no. 817. [German version] [2] Township in Latium Township in Latium, assumed to be at modern Civitella, first literary mention in connection with the events around Coriola…

Liris

(86 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in central Italy (168 km), modern Garigliano. It has its source in the Colles Simbruini near Lacus Fucinus, flows through Sora, takes up the Fibrenus below Arpinum (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,3) and forms a waterfall here; near Fregellae is the confluence of the Trerus (Sacco), then the Melfis (Melfa). Upstream of its mouth lies the Lucus Maricae, a holy grove of Marica with a cult centre sacred to the Romans. To the right of the mouth lies Minturnae. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Mons Ciminius

(111 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic massif (1053 m, modern Monte Cimino) in southern Etruria, in the borderlands shared with the Falisci in the Silva Ciminia. The MC towered above the Lacus Ciminius, which was rich in fish (according to Serv. Aen. 7,697, the lake was created by Hercules; modern Lago di Vico). East of the lake, it was crossed by the via Ciminia, a branch of the via Cassia between Sutrium and Aquae Passerianae (near Viterbo). There seems to have been an ancient place of worship on Monte Venere beside the lake. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Francocci, D. Rose, L'antica vi…

Casuentus

(44 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Lucania (Plin. 3,97; Kasas in Bacchyl. 10,115; Basintos, Basentius in Guido 29), descends from the Apennines near Potentia and flows into the Gulf of Taranto near Metapontum, modern Basento. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 1, 336, 343; 2, 908.

Lacus Nemorensis

(332 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Crater lake in Latium near Aricia in the Alban Hills (Plin. HN 19,141), modern Lago di Nemi. An underground drainage adit (Str. 5,3,13) was cut around the 4th cent. BC [1]. The forested slopes on its banks formed the nemus Dianae (grove of Diana, with temple and high priest, rex Nemorensis, who - always a runaway slave - had to kill his predecessor in single combat [2; 3; 4]). The nemus Dianae led to the lake being called lacus Nemorensis (Prop. 3,22), but also speculum Dianae (‘Mirror of Diana’) (Serv. Aen. 7,516). There was a community of villas (Cic. Att. 6,1,4…

Caelia

(198 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Town of the Peucetii in Apulia Town of the Peucetii in Apulia at the via Municia Tranana, modern Ceglie del Campo (province of Bari). Over a length of more than 5 km encircled by a town wall. Inside, graves from the 6th/4th cents. BC; traces of centuriation. Minting in the 3rd cent. BC. (HN 46: ΚΑΙΛΙΝΟΝ). Municipium of the tribus Claudia (Str. 6,3,7; Ptol. 3,1,7). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Roppo, C., 1921 M. Gervasio, in: Iapigia 1, 1930, 241-272 F. Biancofiore, La viabilità antica, in: ASPugl 15, 1962, 230-32 I. Albergo Frugis, Atti XI Conv. Tar…

Fagifulae

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Samnites Pentri ( regio IV) on a hill to the right of the Tifernus. In 217 BC won back from the Carthaginians by Q. Fabius Maximus (Liv. 24,20,5). Municipium, tribus Voltinia (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX p. 237). Its location was pinpointed at the Church of Santa Maria di Faífula (Faífoli) near Montágano north of Campobasso. Epigraphical evidence: CIL IX 2551-2561; EEpigr 8, 109. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Degrassi, Quattuorviri, in: Id., Scritti vari 1, 1962, 150ff. G. De Benedettis, F., in: S. Capini (ed.), Samnium. Archeologia del Molis…

Aquilonia

(228 words)

Author(s): Buonocore, Marco (Rome) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso Italian town on Monte Vairano near Campobasso [1]. The description of the military operations of 293 BC at Liv. 10,38-44, decisive for the outcome of the 3rd  Samnitic War, corresponds with the results of more recent excavations (city wall from the 4th cent. BC, three city gates); traces of streets indicate a planned urbanization. Buonocore, Marco (Rome) Bibliography 1 Vetter no. 200 C: Akudunniad. G. De Benedittis, in: S. Capini, E. Arslan (ed.), Samnium, 1991, 127-130. [German version] [2] A town of the  Hirpi…

Corfinium

(209 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Caesar | | Regio, regiones Main centre of the Paeligni, on the Aternus; the modern Corfinio (province of L'Aquila). In 90 BC under the name Italia or Italica (Diod. Sic. 37,2,4; Str. 5,4,2; Vell. Pat. 2,16,3) capital of the rebellious Italici; coinage bearing the legend viteliu. Municipium, tribus Sergia; affected by the Civil War (Caes. B Civ. 1,16-23). Regio IV (Plin. HN 3,106). Intersection of the via Valeria, via Claudia Valeria and via Minucia (It. Ant. 310). Archaeological remains: re…

Trifanum

(65 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Aurunci (Ausones) on the Tyrrhenian coast between Minturnae and Sinuessa, where in 340 BC the consul Manlius [I 12] defeated the Latini decisively (Liv. 8,11,11; Diod. Sic. 16,90,2), to be found on the Ager Vescinus (cf. Liv. 10,21,7; 10,31,2; Cic. Leg. agr. 2,66). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Coarelli, Vescia, in: id. (ed.), Minturnae, 1989, 29-33, here 33.

Trigaboli

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town near modern Ferrara, where the Padus (modern Po) separated into two branches, the Olana (Ὄλανα) and the Padoa (Παδόα) (Pol. 2,16,11: Τριγάβολοι/ Trigáboloi). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Uggeri, La romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 46 f.

Macrinum

(60 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Way station on the Adriatic coastal road in Picenum between Castrum Novum and Ostia Aterni (Tab. Peut. 6,1). The place name is probably corrupt, in connection with the mouth of the river called Matrínos by Str. 5,4,2 and Ptol. 3,1,17. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 431 N. Alfieri, I fiumi adriatici, in: Athenaeum 37, 1949, 137f.

Pistoriae

(188 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Petraccia Lucernoni, Maria Federica (Milan)
[German version] (Πιστωρία; Pistōría). Ligurian city on the Umbro (modern Ombrone), a right-bank tributary of the Arnus, where a pass opens northwards over the Appennines; modern Pistoia. First mentioned at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC (in Plaut. Capt. 160f.). Catilina was defeated near P. in 62 BC in a battle against Petreius (Sall. Catil. 1,37). From 89 BC on, municipium of the tribus Velina; from Augustus' time on, in regio VII (Plin. HN 3,52; Ptol. 3,1,48); in Late Antiquity in the Tuscia annonaria (Amm. Marc. 27,3,1), mansio on the via Cassia (Tab. Peut. 4,2; It. Ant. 284f.).…

Sapis

(83 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] A river, which gives its name to the tribus Sapinia, modern Savio; rises in the Appennines in the north of Umbria (Plin. HN 3,115;  Str. 5,1,11: Σάπις; Sápis); Sarsina is in its upper reaches. It flows through the region of Caesena into the Aemilia and joins the Ionian Sea (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Ravenna. It was crossed by the via Popilia at the road station S. between Ariminum and Ravenna (Tab. Peut. 5,1: Sabis). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Acerrae

(199 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brizzi, Giovanni (Bologna) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] City on the Clanius in Campania This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Etrusci, Etruria City of the  Sidicini or  Samnites on the Clanius in  Campania (Str. 5,4,8; 11; Plin. HN 3,63). 332 BC civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8, 17, 12; Vell. Pat. 1, 14, 4), praefectura (fortress destroyed (Liv. 23, 17, 7; 19, 4), rebuilt 211 BC (Liv. 27, 3). Colonia under Augustus (liber coloniarum 229). Few archaeological remains under today's city of Acerra. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 754 [German version] [2] Capital of the  Insubres Cap…

Asisium

(244 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria Town of the  Umbri on the slopes of Mount Subasio, modern Assisi. From 89 BC   municipium of the tribus Sergia, later regio VI (Str. 5,2,10; Plin. HN 3,113; Ptol. 3,1,53). Birthplace of  Propertius. Wall ring in opus quadratum with an irregular course (2.5 km), remains of a gate in the west. The town was laid out in terraces, with a central forum with a temple, allegedly of Minerva, on its northern side, and arcades on the other three sides (1st cent. BC), ciste…

Ameria

(309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in  Umbria between  Tiber and Nera, on the via Amerina (a branch of the   via Cassia , which led to  Tuder) 56 miles out from Rome (CIL IX 5833), today Amelia (Terni). According to Cato very old (HRR Cato fr. 49; Plin. HN 3,114). 406 m high chalk walls, which especially on the north side offer protection; these were strengthened with massive polygonal masonry.   Municipium of the   tribus Clustumina . Cults of Jupiter, Mars, Fortuna and seviri augustales are attested. Base of a temple (S. Mar…

Regae, Regisvilla

(106 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥηγισουίλλα/ Rhēgisouílla). Small landing site ( positio, Itin. Maritimum 499,3 f.) on the coast of Etruria between Graviscae and Cosa(e), the residence of Maleus [3], king of Pelasgian colonists, who later returned to Athens (Str. 5,2,8). In the Hellenistic-Roman Period, R. was a port of the Volci/Vulci (near modern Montalto di Castro). The place has been located at Le Murelle di Montalto di Castro; there is a Roman villa of the period from the 1st to the 5th cents. AD there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Tortorici, Regisvillae, in: Quaderni Ist. To…

Ad Solaria

(76 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Statio in  Etruria on the  via Cassia Statio in  Etruria on the   via Cassia between Florentia and Pistoriae ( regioVII - Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,36). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Statio in  Liguria on the via Aemilia Scauri A further statio of the same name was in  Liguria on the via Aemilia Scauri between Luna and Genoa ( regioIX -- Tab. Peut. 3,5; Geogr. Rav. 4,32). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Longula

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Λόγγολα; Lóngola). Town near Antium and Corioli whose inhabitants were known as Long(ul)ani. In ancient times in the territory of the Latini, later of the Volsci, and in 493 BC conquered by Consul Postumus Cominius [I 3] (Liv. 2,33,4; 39,3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,91; 8,36; 85). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 556, 631 M. Pallottino, Le origini di Roma, in: ArchCl 12, 1960, 27 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963, 13, 368.

Mons Argentarius

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Promontory on the coast of Etruria (635 m; Rut. Nam. 1,315) to the south of the mouth of the Albinia (modern Albegna), today still Monte Argentario, connected to the mainland by two narrow strips of land enclosing a lagoon. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography R. Bronson, G. Uggeri, Isola del Giglio, Isola di Giannutri, Monte Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello, in: SE 38, 1970, 201-214.
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