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Echemmon

(89 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέμμων; Echémmōn). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus A son of Priamus. He was killed at the same time as his brother Chromius [3] of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,153). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 557f. [German version] [2] Nabataean A Nabataean who was killed by Perseus (Ov. Met. 5,163; 176). Ovid at this point adopts the Homeric motif from Hom. Il. 5,159-165 (cf. E. [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 4-5 (comm.), 1976, 264.

Daedalion

(81 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαιδαλίων; Daidalíōn). Son of Heosphoros (Lucifer); brother of Ceyx; father of  Chione [2]. In his grief for the death of his only daughter, who scorned the beauty of Diana and was killed by her, he throws himself from the peak of Parnassus. Apollo, however, transforms him into a hawk (Ov. Met. 11,291-345; Hyg. Fab. 200). In Paus. 8,4,6 D. is the father of  Autolycus [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. Met. B. X-XI, 1980, 313.

Dryops

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δρύοψ; Drýops, ‘man of oak’). Gave his name to the Dryopians [1]; son of the river  Spercheus and the Danaid Polydora, or of Apollo and  Dia [3], daughter of the Arcadian Lycaon. D. himself was also thought to be an Arcadian (Str. 8,6,13; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8; Nik. in Ant. Lib. 32; Tzetz. Lycoph. 480). One of his daughters bore Pan to Hermes (Hom. h. 19,33-39). D. had a cult (temple with statue) in the Dryopian town of Asine in Messenia (Paus. 4,34,11), whence occasional coins showing D. [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan…

Chromis

(125 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρόμις; Chrómis). [German version] [1] Ally of the Trojans Son of Arsinous (Apollod. Epit. 3,35); ally of the Trojans. With Ennomus leader of the Mysians (Hom. Il. 2,858; 17,218; 494; 534; Dictys 2,35). C. is then either ‘forgotten’ in the portrayal of the river battle (Hom. Il. 21) or replaced by Asteropaeus [1]. At a later time he is regarded as propator of the Mysian Abbaetae [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, 1960, 175. 2 P. Weiss, s.v. C., LIMC 3.1, 275 no. 1. K. Jachmann, Der homer. Schiffskatalog und die Ilias, 1958, 144-146. …

Elpenor

(166 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπήνωρ; Elpḗnōr). Evocative name, whose exact meaning is disputed (‘on whom rest the hopes of men’ or ‘who hopes for manly vigour’) [1]. He was one of Odysseus' companions, who were turned into swine by Circe; reverted to his normal shape, he fell off the roof of her house in a sleepy drunken stupor, broke his neck, and was left without burial. His shadow begged Odysseus to bury him, when the latter visited the Underworld; his wish was granted (Hom. Od. 10,551-560; 11,51-83; 12,1…

Cloelia

(143 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Young Roman woman, example of female bravery Young woman who was hostage of the Etruscan king  Porsenna (508 BC). She escaped, swam across the Tiber (or rode across it on horseback) and reached Rome safely with a group of young girls; she had to be returned to the king but, in recognition of her bravery, he released her and a number of the hostages. After the peace treaty the Romans honoured her with a statue on horseback at the Velia on the Sacra Via (Liv. 2,13,6-11; Flor. Epit. 1,4,7). She remained one of the most widespread examples of female bravery (Boccaccio, De claris m…

Dymas

(251 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δύμας; Dýmas). [German version] [1] Phrygian king on the Sangarius, father of Hecuba Phrygian king on the Sangarius; father of Hecuba the wife of Priam, and of Asius (Hom. Il. 16,718; Apollod. 3,148; Hyg. Fab. 91,1; Ov. Met. 11,761). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Phaeacian A Phaeacian, whose daughter was a friend of Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 6,22). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Trojan in the Aeneid A Trojan who joined Aeneas at the fall of Troy, and was killed (Verg. Aen. 2,340; 428). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography T. Gargiulo, s.v. Dimante, EV 2, 75. [German version] [4] …

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Bianor

(192 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Son of Tiber and Manto, founder of Mantua Son of the Tiber and Manto, daughter of Teiresias or Hercules. B., also named Ocnus (Aucnus) (Verg. Aen. 10,198), is said to have founded the city of Mantua and named it after his mother. According to others (Serv. Aen.) B. founded Felsina, later to become Bononia (Bologna); Virgil (Ecl. 9,60) mentions B.'s grave. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. E. Brenk, War and the shepherd. The tomb of B. in Vergil's ninth Eclogue, in: AJPh 102, 1981, 427-430. [German version] [2] Writer of epigrams in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus Writer of …

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Cura

(1,298 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Personification of worry Personification of worry (ThlL, Onom. 2,753). In Horace's first Roman Ode, C. is a black, ghostly companion of man (Hor. Carm. 3,1,40: post equitem sedet atra C.). Aeneas encounters the ‘avenging worries’ ( ultrices Curae) at the gate of Hades (Verg. Aen. 6,274 and Serv. Aen. on this passage). According to Hyginus Fab. 220, C. formed man from a piece of earth. Saturn determines that man belongs to C. in life and to Jupiter after death. The fable is of Greek origin [1]. In all probability, evidence for C. exists on a poculum deorum (CIL I2 442: Coira p…

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Dares

(240 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(Δάρης; Dárēs). [German version] [1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus Trojan priest of Hephaistus, whose sons Phegeus and Idaeus start the battle against  Diomedes. Whilst the former is killed by Diomedes, Idaeus is rescued by Hephaistus (Hom. Il. 5,9-26). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. S. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. 2, 1990, 54 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 408f. [German version] [2] One of Aeneas' companions One of Aeneas' companions, excellent pugilist. However, at the funeral games in honour of  Anchises, he is unexp…
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