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Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Daphnus

(113 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Parapotamii

(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…

Calliarus

(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…

Molycrium

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μολύκρειον/ Molýkreion). Corinthian colony in the foothills of Antirrhium, at a point dominating the strait between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth; its exact location is unknown. Sources: Thuc. 2,84,4; 3,102,2: Μ.; 2,86,2: Ethnikon Μολυκρικός; Pol. 5,94,7: Μολυκρία; Str. 8,2,3: Ethnikon Μολύκριος; 9,4,8; 10,2,21: Μολύκρεια; Plin. HN 4,6: Molycria; Ptol. 3,15,3: Μολυκρία; Ps.-Scyl. 35: Μολύκρεια; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μολυκρία. Occupied by Athens around 460 BC, conquered in 426 by the Spartans under Eurylochus (Thuc. 3,102,…

Myonia

(288 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυονία/ Myonía, Μυάνη/ Myánē, Μυών/ Myṓn). One of the four towns in Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) (Paus. 10,38,8; Plin. HN 4,8: Myania), about 30 stadia ( c. 5,7 km) north of Amphissa, from where it is possible only with difficulty to reach Locris (Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. see Μ., here also Μυών; Herodian. 3,1,22; 3,1,297), exact location uncertain; there is discussion about Hagia Efthymia [1. 79], Seghditsa (present-day Pavliani) on the eastern slope of Ghiona [2. 380], Topolia (present-day Elaion) with r…

Thronium

(230 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Θρόνιον; Thrónion). City in eastern Locris (Locri [1]) on the northeastern slopes of Mount Cnemis at the edge of the Boagrius plain, which opens on to the Gulf of Malia, on the coast road to Thermopylae (Aeschin. Or. 2,132) near modern Palaiokastro (traces of Hellenistic and Roman settlements, surviving fortifications). T. was home to the family of Ajax [2] (Hom. Il. 2,533; Eur. Iph. A. 262 ff.). Severely affected by the earthquake of 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6), T.…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Tethronion

(104 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τεθρώνιον; Tethrṓnion). City in eastern Phocis (Hdt. 8,33; Plin. HN 4,8) on the northern edge of the valley of the upper Cephis(s)us [1], 20 stadia from Drymus [1], 15 stadia from Amphicaea (Paus. 10,33,12); presumably to the northeast of modern Amphikleia or on a hill 5 km to the south of modern T. with ancient remains of city walls. In 480 BC destroyed by the Persians (Hdt. 8,33; Paus. 10,3,2), in 208 BC occupied by Philippus [7] V (Liv. 28,7,13). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Bd. 5, 1981, 431  Müller, 5…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…
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