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Sodamus

(137 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Σώδαμος/ Sṓdamos) of Tegea. A number of sources, which can be traced to Strato of Lampsacus, 3rd century AD (fr. 146 f. Wehrli), and Clearchus (PSI IX 1093, cf. fr. 69d Wehrli), tell that the gnome Μηδὲν ἄγαν· καιρῷ πάντα πρόσεστι καλά ("Nothing too much; everything beautiful has its own measure") was ascribed to S. instead of Chilon [1]. An epígramma handed down in schol. Eur. Hipp. 264 in the form of a single distich, permits the assumption that S. had an inscription with Chilon's saying mounted in the Temple of Athena in Tegea, parall…

Butas

(67 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Βούτας; Boútas). The name possibly refers to a freedperson of Cato Uticensis (Plut. Cato 70 = SH 236); he wrote Αἴτια (‘Causes’) of Roman content in the elegiac metre in which, i.a., he dealt with the origin of the Lupercalia (a distich in Plut. Romulus 21,8 = SH 234) and the Bona Dea (Arnob. 5,18 = SH 235). Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)

Hermeias [1-2]

(260 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Laks, André
(Ἑρμείας; Hermeías) see also Hermias (Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Of Methymna, author of Sikelika, dated 4th cent. BC of Methymna. Probably 4th cent. BC. First ‘foreign’ author of Sikeliká, comprising 10 or 12 bks and covering the period up to 376/5 (Diod. Sic. 15,37,3). As only a single fragment is extant, he hardly seems to have influenced the subsequent tradition. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Fr.: FGrH 558. Bibliography: K. Meister, Die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1990, 69. [German version] [2] Of Curium, iambic poet, Hellenistic period of Curium, iambi…

Anacreon

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] [1] The Elder Lyric poet, 6th cent. BC (Ἀνακρέων [ Anakréōn], or for metrical reasons also Ἀνακρείων [ Anakreíōn]). Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) [German version] A. Life Writer of monodic lyrics and one of the nine authors who belong to the Alexandrian canon of the nine lyrical poets. A. was born in the town of Teos in Ionia; the details about the name of his father vary (Suda). The chronology of his life is also uncertain and is based on the assumption that he was a contemporary of Polycrates of Samos; for the akme of A. the date Olympiad 62/2 (531 BC) given by Eusebius is…

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Charon

(952 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Χάρων; Chárōn). [German version] [1] Ferry-man of the Underworld Poetic coining from χαροπός ( charopós) ‘dark-gazing’ [1. 309]; probably originally a euphemistic term for death [2. 229f.; 3. 32f.], and personified in epic poetry during the 6th cent. at the earliest (Orpheus: Serv. Aen. 6,392; Minyas) [1. 305,1; 2. 229]; not mentioned in Homer; earliest attested in the Minyas epic (PEG I: beginning 5th cent.?); thereafter popular as a burlesque figure, especially in Athenian dramatic poetry (Eur. HF, Alc.; A…

Boiscus

(98 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Βοΐσκος; Boḯskos) from Cyzicus. Mar. Vict. 2,4,30 (VI 82 Keil) and Rufin. 1,28 (VI 564 Keil) have transmitted an unusually catalectic iambic octometer of his (= SH 233); B., who calls himself καινοῦ γραφεὺς ποιήματος (‘writer of new poetry’), declares his pride in developing this verse. B. can perhaps be identified with the eponymous ποιητὴς καινῆς κωμῳδίας (‘writer of New Comedy’) who won a victory at Thespiae around 100 BC (IG VII 1761); cf. [1;2]. Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) Bibliography 1 Kroll, s.v. B. (5), RE Suppl. 3, 211 2 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, G…

Timon

(945 words)

Author(s): D.RO. | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Τίμων/ Tímōn). [German version] [1] T. of Athens Epitome of the misanthropist. Son of a certain Echecratidas, from the demos of Collytus, 5th cent. BC. T., whose historicity is uncertain, withdrew from society, probably after suffering disappointments, and died because he did not want to see a doctor. His tomb, which lay on a shore ledge, is said to have been washed off by the sea (Phrynichus, Monótropos, fr. 18 CAF; Aristoph. Av. 1549; Aristoph. Lys. 805-815; Neanthes FGrH 84 F 35; among others: [1]). Legendary interpretations of his figure and confusion with…

Agamestor

(69 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Ἀγαμήστωρ; Agamḗstōr). Writer of elegies from Pharsalus, probably Hellenistic, composed a Θέτιδος ἐπιθαλάμιος, of which Tzetzes (ad Lycophr. 178, II S. 89 Scheer; ad Iliadem S. 811, 31 ff. Bachm.) has transmitted four verses (= SH 14) with an etymological interpretation of the name Ἀχιλεύς ( Achileús= ἀ+ χεῖλος) ; see [1]. Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) Bibliography 1 K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1968, 97, 127 f.

Artemidorus

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος; Artemídōros). [German version] [1] Indo-Greek King in 1st cent. BC. Coins are the only evidence of his existence, middle Indian Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [German version] [2] Elegiac poet Writer of elegies Περὶ Ἔρωτος in which, among others, the katasterismós of the dolphin was narrated. He had helped Poseidon win Amphitrite as his wife (Ps.-Eratosth. Catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, cf. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 214). Even if this is only a hy…

Philiadas

(126 words)

Author(s): Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
[German version] (Φιλιάδας; Philiádas) of Megara. Steph. Byz. s.v. Θέσπεια ascribes to him an ἐπίγραμμα τῶν ἀναιρεθέντων ὑπὸ τῶν Περσῶν ('epigram on those who fell against the Persians') from which he quotes an elegiac distich (GVI no. 5 Peek = no. 23 Preger = FGE 289-290 = IEG II2 p. 193) lauding the bravery of the Thespians. The theory that this formed part of an Epitaphios carved on one of the five steles erected at Thermopylae (Str. 9,4,2) is probably without foundation [1; 2]. The hypothesis that P. authored vv. 773-782 (788) of the Theognidea (Theognis [1]) is also dubious [3]. Di Marco,…

Diphilos

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina)) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος). [English version] [1] Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks um 330 v. Chr. Athener. Betreiber eines Silberbergwerks. Er wurde um 330 v.Chr. wegen gesetzwidrigen Abbaus der mesokrineís (Pfeiler), die als Markscheiden für die Grubenanteile und als Sicherheitsstützen dienten, von Lykurg angeklagt und zum Tode verurteilt. Das Vermögen von 160 Talenten wurde eingezogen und an die Bürger verteilt (Ps.-Plut. mor. 843D). Bergbau Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237  M.H. Hansen, Demogra…

Eukleides

(2,613 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi (Latina)) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Archon im Jahr 403/2 v.Chr. Athenischer Archon im Jahr 403/2 v.Chr. In seinem Amtsjahr machte Athen einen neuen Anfang nach der Oligarchie der Dreißig (siehe etwa And. 1,87-94) und übernahm unter anderem offiziell das Ionische Alphabet (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [English version] [2] aus Megara Schüler des Sokrates, 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. Schüler des Sokrates, Begründer der Tradition der Megariker; geb. zwischen 450 und 435, gest. wahrscheinlich zu B…

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…
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