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Anarchy

(716 words)

Author(s): Hering Torres, Max Sebastián
Anarchy (from the Greek an-archía) means “state of being without government” or “without a leader.” Although there are many instances of the use of the term in Greek Antiquity (e.g. in Homer, Aristotle, Plato), it seems hardly to have been used in Roman Antiquity or the Middle Ages [2]. However, the Latinized form  anarchia did come into wide use in the first phase of the early modern period. The original meaning was retained in lexica of the 17th and early 18th centuries, although anarchy was also understood in the sense of “absence of authority” and “chaos” [2].The concept was refine…
Date: 2019-10-14

Exclusion

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Hering Torres, Max Sebastián
1. Definition“Outside is whatever is not inside” [2. 23]. The boundary between out and in, between in-group and out-group, is a constructed one, sometimes geographical, but usually symbolic, ideological, and fictional. Exclusion is not a static condition, but a process leading to the removal of an individual or a collective from a defined geographical, economic, legal, or social structure. Boundaries are constructed in order to establish principles of differentiation, classification, power, o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Charivari

(819 words)

Date: 2019-10-14

Foreignness

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Hering Torres, Max Sebastián
1. Definition Foreignness emerges in thinking about people from elsewhere or perceiving them. People only become foreign where locals see them as “different” and classify them as alien. Foreignness is thus not a constant, but always relative and generally local. Where people are found to be “foreign” in their own homeland (Fatherland, motherland), this constitutes a special variant of foreignness (e.g. Jewish diaspora).The relationship between the local and the foreign shows that foreignness serves as a mechanism for the internal delineation of a group i…
Date: 2019-10-14

Equality

(4,379 words)

Author(s): Reulecke, Martin | Hering Torres, Max Sebastián
1. DefinitionEquality is generally understood as the partial conformity of several objects, persons, o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Minorities

(4,103 words)

Author(s): Hering Torres, Max Sebastián | Rothkegel, Martin
1. IntroductionCultural “sense-worlds” lend legitimacy to institutional systems. They thus contribute to the definition of the social realities of a majority society, from which variant realities of  minority societies are excluded (Alterity). …
Date: 2020-04-06