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Paraetonium

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Limes (Παραιτόνιον; Paraitónion). Port c. 300 km west of Alexandria [1], modern Marsā Maṭrūḥ, the point of departure of the road to the oasis of Siwa (Ammoneion), also called ἡ Ἀμμωνία/ hē Ammōnía (Str. 17,799). P. was important as a port and for border security during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods; during the New Kingdom, there was a fortress close to modern Umm ar-Raḫam. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Healing deities, healing cults

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Heeßel, Nils (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] I. Introduction The healing of illness is, in principle, within the province of any deity or hero in possession of superhuman powers of assistance. But in the reality of cult practice, the healing function came to be concentrated in certain deities and heroes whose powers were particularly strong [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 W. A. Jayne, The Healing Gods of Ancient Civilizations, 1925. [German version] II. Mesopotamia and Syria In Mesopotamia, a series of deities were associated with healing powers through names, epithets, and ref…

Divination

(6,021 words)

Author(s): Maul, Stefan (Heidelberg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Niehr, Herbert (Tübingen) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia While attention in old Egyptian culture was largely centred on existence after death, the concerns of Mesopotamia were almost exclusively with the present. A significant part of the cultural energy of ancient Mesopotamia was devoted to keeping human actions in harmony with the divine, so as to ward off such misfortunes as natural catastrophes, war, sickness and premature death. As such, heavy responsibility rested on the ruler as mediator between the world of gods and that of men. In Mesopotamia everything which is and happens was seen as a man…

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Somtutefnakht

(58 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Zm-twy-ty.f-nḫtt). Head of the Egyptian city of Heracleopolis Magna c. 660-630 BC, naval commander and supervisor of Upper Egypt, related to the royal house, an important ally of Psammetichus [1] I when the latter extended his power to Middle and Upper Egypt. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography G. Vittmann, Der demotische Papyrus Rylands 9, 1998, 708-713.

Necropolis

(80 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νεκρόπολις/ Nekrópolis). In Str. 17,1,10; 14 the name of the extended cemetery district with gardens, tombs and embalming places to the west of the city wall of Alexandria [1], attested from the 3rd cent. BC until the Arab conquest. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Adriani, Repertorio d'arte dell' Egitto greco-romano, Serie C 1-2, 1966  P.M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, vols. 1-3, 1972  G. Grimm, Alexandria. Die erste Königsstadt der hellenistischen Welt, 1998  H. Kees, s.v. Nekropolis, RE 16, 2233f.

Sais

(285 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάϊς/ Sáïs). City in the western delta of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, Egyptian Zw, capital city of the 5th administrative district of Lower Egypt, the modern (village of) Ṣā l-Hạǧar. As the main cult centre of the goddess Neith, S. was already important in the 1st half of the 3rd millennium. Politically, however, it did not come to the fore until the 1st millennium BC, when the Libyan rulers residing there attempted to expand their area of power beginning c. 730. Initially repelled by the Nubians, their successors Necho [1] I and Psammetichus [1] I in th…

Sebennytus

(164 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σεβεννῦτος/ Sebennŷtos). Town in the central Nile Delta, on the Damiette arm of the Nile, Egyptian Ṯb-nṯr, Assyrian Ṣabnūti, modern Samannūd. As a city (its name was also used to denote the 12th district of Lower Egypt) S. is not recorded before the 8th century BC - as the residence of local Libyan princes. In the second half of the 1st millennium BC it became one of the most important towns of the Delta. The kings of the 30th dynasty (380-342)…

Esna

(194 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Old Egytpian Jwnyt, later ( T)- Snj). Place in Upper Egypt, c. 60 km south of Luxor on the western bank of the Nile. Named in Greek λάτων (πόλις) after the latus fish, much venerated in cult practice. Today's city E. stands on the old settlement, therefore only the temple (9 m beneath today's level) is accessible. The first reference to E. comes from the 1st intermediate period; E. did not become significant, however, until the New Kingdom as the departure point for a caravan route to Nubi…

Tutankhamun

(166 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Egyptian king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1333-1323 BC, Egyptian Twt-nḫ-Jmn ('Living Image of Amun'), throne name Nb-ḫprw-R, who ascended the throne while still a child. T. was the son of a king (presumably Amenophis [4] IV = Amenhotep IV); T. married a daughter of Amenophis IV and Nefertiti). The restoration of the old cults (primarily that of Amun) begun by his predecessor Smenkhkare was continued under T., and the religious policies of Amenophis [4] IV were abandoned completely. During the …

Schoinos

(117 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (σχοῖνος/ schoînos, 'rush, reed'), Egyptian measure of length, which according to Hdt. 2,6 corresponds to 60 stadia (Stadion [1]), but according to Str. 17,1,24 and 4, it varied (depending on geographic location) between 30 and 120 stadia. The Egyptian equivalent jtrw represents the distance over which a towing team was able to tow a boat. With local variations, the average is assumed to be 10.5 km. The name schoinos is based on an etymological misinterpretation: through sound change, the Egyptian jtrw assimilated with the word for (i.a.) 'reed' ( jrw). Jansen-Winke…

Lepidotonpolis

(84 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Λεπιδότων πόλις; Lepidótōn pólis). Town in upper Egypt, modern Nagʿ el-Mescheich opposite Girga, Egyptian probably Bḥdt-jtt, with remains of a temple of Ramesses II and the rock tomb of a high priest. The chief god was the lioness Mḥjt; but the lepidotus fish was also worshipped here (cf. Hdt. 2,72; Str. 17,812; confirmed by the find of a naos filled with fish bronzes). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography F. Gomaà, s.v. Mescheich, LÄ 4, 107 H. Kees, s.v. L., RE 12, 2066f.

Onuphis

(71 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὄνουφις; Ónouphis). Town in Lower Egypt and the nome named after it (Ὀνουφίτης), first referred to in Hdt. 2,166 as a settlement area of the Calasirieis, later mentioned by ancient geographers (Plin. HN 4,49; Ptol. Geog. 4,5,22 among others) and in a Coptic list of bishops; presumably in the central Delta near modern Maḥallat Minūf. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A.B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book II, Commentary 99-182, 1988, 193-4.

Tanis

(249 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Τάνις; Tánis). [German version] [1] City in the northeast of the Nile Delta This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt City in the northeast of the Nile Delta, Egyptian Ḏn.t, Biblical Zoan, modern (Tell) San el-Hagar, the largest ruin mound in Egypt (177 ha, 30 m high). T. was founded as a residence in place of the abandoned Pi-Ramesses ( c. 20 km to the south) at the beginning of the 21st Dynasty ( c. 1070 BC). Sculptures and other stone from Pi-Ramesses (some of which had already been re-used there) were used for the construction of T. This older building…

Sabacon

(191 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Σαβάκων/ Sabákōn). First king of the 25th (Nubian) dynasty, Egyptian Šbk­, brother and successor of Pi(anch)i (Pije). In the traditional chronology, his minimally 15-year reign is estimated at c. 716/5 to 702/1 BC. However, since a recently published Assyrian inscription indicates that his successor Sebichus was already king in 706 [1], S. must have ascended the throne in 720 at the latest. In the 2nd year of his reign, S. conquered Egypt and according to Manetho [1] had his adversary Bokchoris burnt ali…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Aeria

(105 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] Ancient name for Egypt Ancient name for Egypt used in Aesch. Supp. 75; see also Steph. Byz., s. v. Αἴγυπτος ( Aígyptos) and Apoll. Rhod. 4,267. The etymology is unclear, perhaps from ἀήρ. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Town in  Gallia Narbonensis Town in  Gallia Narbonensis (Str. 4,185), probably the place today known as Mont Ventoux. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [3] Aphrodite's name in Paphus  Aërias (Ἀερία; Aería). Aphrodite's name in Paphus  Aërias. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [4] Figure from Greek myth Mother of …

Nitriae

(114 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νιτρίαι/ Nitríai). Settlement on the western edge of the Nile delta around 15km to the south of Damanhūr, modern Gabal Barng. The area around N. produced natron. Since Ptolemaic times it is documented in Greek sources (e.g. Str. 17,803; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Pall. Laus. 7,1 and others). In the 2nd cent. BC it had a Jewish synagogue. Around AD 315, the Coptic abbot Apa Amoun founded a Christian hermitic community in this region, which flourished in the 4th-5th cents. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Bernand, Le delta égyptien d'après les textes grecs…

Lyconpolis

(260 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (λύκων πόλις; lýkōn pólis, ‘wolfs' town’). City on the western bank of the Nile c. 400 km upstream from Cairo, modern Asyūṭ, Egyptian swtj (‘guard’), Assyrian siāutu, capital city of the 13th district of upper Egypt. Because of its position at a narrow stretch of the river, it formed the border of upper Egypt proper and was therefore (and as the point of departure of a caravan road to the western oases) of particular strategic importance. In the 1st Intermediate Period ( c. 2190-1990 BC) it was the main bulwark against the expansion of the Theban rulers northw…

Ptolemais

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…
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