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Arabarches

(372 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] [1] Amt im röm. Ägypten Amt im röm. Ägypten, zuerst 2 n. Chr. belegt (OGIS 202), aber vielleicht mit ptolemäischen Vorbildern. Ein Kollegium von A. war Mitte des 2. Jh. für die Erhebung der Einfuhrsteuer in Koptos zuständig (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). Unklar ist die Aufgabenteilung mit dem παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης, doch zeigt OGIS 202 das Nebeneinander der Ämter. Der A. war auch für den Einzug der Straßengebühren auf der Straße von Koptos zum Roten Meer zuständig (OGIS 674 …

Garsyeris

(92 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Γαρσύηρις, wegen -υηρις/υερις späthethit.-luw.? [1. 669]). Als Vertriebener Offizier des Achaios [5], riet diesem 221/220 v.Chr. zum Abfall von Antiochos III. In eine Auseinandersetzung der pisidischen Städte Pednelissos und Selge griff er 218 zusammen mit mehreren Städten der Region, aber ohne die Hilfe von Side gegen Pednelissos ein und zwang gemeinsam mit Achaios Selge zu Frieden und Geldzahlung (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-C.), 1913/14, 140, 148 H.…

Antiochos

(3,851 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος). [English version] [1] Steuermann auf der Flotte des Alkibiades [3] Steuermann auf der Flotte des Alkibiades [3]. Seine fehlende Disziplin führte zu einer Niederlage der Athener bei Notion 407 v. Chr., worauf Alkibiades als Strategos abgesetzt wurde (Hell. Oxyrh. 8 Chambers; Xen. hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) …

Apama

(231 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] First wife of Seleucus I (end of the 4th cent. BC) Daughter of the Bactrian Spitamenes, married at the ‘mass wedding’ staged in Susa in 324 BC by Alexander [4] the Great, to Seleucus I, mother of Antiochus [2] I. Her subsequent fate, once Seleucus married Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, is unknown (Inscr. Didyma 113; 479 f.; Str. 12,578; 16,479; Plut. Demetr. 31,5; Arr. Anab. 7,4; App. Syr. 57). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Wife of Ptolemaeus I (end of the 4th cent. BC) A. in Persian Artakama, the daughter of the Persian Artab…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC …

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Somatophylakes

(95 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (σωματοφύλακες/ sōmatophýlakes; from sôma = 'body' and phyláttein = 'keep guard'; sing. sōmatophýlax) were among the Greeks the bodyguards of high-ranking personages - sometimes nobles themselves (e.g. Diod. Sic. 14,43,3; cf. Hdt. 7,205; 8,124; Xen. Hell. 6,4,14). Two circles of attendants and guards surrounded Alexander [4] the Great, the 'companions' (Hetairoi) and the somatophylakes, some of whom could also be entr…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he …

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of dida…

Mania

(517 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Μανία; Manía). [German version] [1] Greek personification of madness Greek personification of madness. Cultic worship as Maníai (plural!) in the place of that name near Megalopolis. According to Paus. 8,34,1-3, Orestes went mad there (identification with Erinyes/Eumenides? Erinys). In the singular M. is found only in Quint. Smyrn. 5,451ff. for the rage of Ajax [1]. M. appears with an annotation of the name on a Lower Italian vase by Asteas depicting Hercules's infanticide ( Lyssa, Oestrus). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of the Roman goddess Larunda Another name for…

Epigenes

(499 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἐπιγένης; Epigénēs). [German version] [0] Of Sicyon, Greek tragedian, 6th cent. BC E. of  Sicyon. According to the Suda s. v.  Thespis (θ 282 = TrGF I 1 T 1), the first tragedian (6th cent. BC). The audience supposedly reacted to the lack of Dionysiac content in his plays with the proverbial exclamation οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸν Διόνυσον ( oudèn pròs tòn Diónyson, ‘But this has nothing to do with  Dionysus!’; TrGF I 1 T 18,3). Perhaps E.'s activity may be related to the τραγικοὶ χοροί ( tragikoì choroí, ‘tragic choruses’) attested for Sicyon in Hdt. 5,67 [2. 21-23].  Tragedy I Zimmermann, Bernhard (Fr…

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Eucratides

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Εὐκρατίδης; Eukratídēs). The son of Heliocles and Laodice, overthrew Demetrius I of Bactria and India about 170 BC on behalf of his cousin Antiochus IV and made himself ‘great king’. About 150 (?) E. was murdered by his son. Soon after E.'s death the Bactrian kingdom came to an end due to external attacks (HN 838f.; Str. 11,9,2, 11,11,2; 15,1,3; Iust. 41,6,1-5 Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography The Cambridge History of Iran 3, 1984 A. N. Lahiri, Corpus of Indo-Greek Coins, 1965 A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1957 W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 Wi…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Xenoetas

(62 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ξενοίτας; Xenoítas) from Achaea. In 221 BC Antiochus [5] III sent him as a stratēgós with full authority against the renegade Molon [1] who defeated him with a ruse after an early victory, despite support from the governors of Susiana and Mesene (Pol. 5,45,6; 46,9-48,9). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Großen, 1964, 116; 127-131; 178 f.

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Agamemnon …

Garsyeris

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Γαρσύηρις; Garsýeris, because of -υηρις/υερις late Hittite-Luwian? [1. 669]). As a cast-out officer of Achaeus [5], he advised the latter in 221/0 BC to secede from Antiochus III. In the dispute of the Pisidian towns Pednelissus and Selge in 218, he intervened against Pednelissus together with several other towns of the region, but without the help of Side. Together with Achaeus he forced Selge to accept a peace and pay money (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-…
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