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Rōhtāsgaŕh

(128 words)

Author(s): ed.
, a hill fortress and settlement in the S̲h̲āhābād District in the northeast of the state of Bihar in the Indian Union (lat. 24° 37′ N., long. 83° 55′ E.), some 50 km/30 miles south of the town of Sahsārām [ q.v.]. There must have been a Hindu fort or settlement there previously, but the present fortifications date from its capture by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr [ q.v.] in 946/1539. They were added to by Akbar’s general Mān Singh [ q.v.] when he was appointed governor of Bihār and Bengal. It was surrendered to the British army in Bengal soon after the battle of Baksar (Buxar [ q.v.]) in 1764 through the effor…

Ibn Hindū

(216 words)

Author(s): Ed..
, Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-Kātib , secretary of the chancery, man of letters, poet and physician, a native of Rayy but educated at Nis̲h̲āpūr, where he was introduced to Greek science. He belonged at first to the dīwān of ʿAḍud al-Dawla, for whom he wrote a number of letters; he appears at Arrad̲j̲ān in 354/965 during the visit of al-Mutanabbi, and he seems to have remained in the service of the Buwayhids until his death, probably in 410/1019 rather than 420/1029. In addition to a Dīwān , which is in part preserved in later anthologies, he was the …

Marwānids

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam, who formed the second, and most long-lasting line of this dynasty, the first line being that of Sufyānids, that of Muʿāwiya I b. Abī Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], his son and his grandson (41-64/661-83). With the death of the child Muʿāwiya II b. Yazīd [ q.v.], the caliphate passed to Muʿāwiya I’s second cousin Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ, of the parallel branch of the Aʿyāṣ [ q.v. in Suppl.]. Marwān and his descendants now formed the Marwānid line of the Umayyads (64-132/684-750), his son and successor ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] being t…

(al-)Murtaḍā b. al-ʿAfīf

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( = ʿAfīf al-Dīn?) b. Ḥātim b. Muslim al-Maḳdisī al-S̲h̲āfīʿī. the author of a work in Arabic on ancient Egypt of which the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris once possessed a ms. of the 10th/16th century, now lost, but of which there exists a French translation by the translator of al-Makīn [ q.v.], Pierre Vattier (d. 1667), and published at Paris in 1666 under the title L’Égypte de Murtadifils du Gaphiphe , il est traité des Pyramides , du débordement du Nil et des autres merveilles de cette Province , selon les opinions et traditions des Arabes . This version, in its…

al-Aʿs̲h̲ā

(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the night-blind”, is the surname of a number of early Arab poets (17 in all; see al-Āmidī, al-Muʾtalif , 12 ff.; Ag̲h̲āni , index; L.A., s.v.); each of them is connected with a tribe (Aʿs̲h̲ā Banī Fulān) and, apart from the most celebrated of their number, al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bakr (or the Ḳays) [ q.v.] and al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Hamdān [ q.v.], the following are worthy of note: al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bāhila (ʿĀmir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Riyāḥ) who is included among the aṣḥāb al-marāt̲h̲ī by Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , ed. S̲h̲ākir, 169, 175 (with refs.); see also al-Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa , index; Abu Zayd al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, Ḏj̲a…

Ibn Zurʿa

(643 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿĪsā b. Isḥāḳ b. Zurʿa , Jacobite Christian philosopher, apologist and translator, born at Bag̲h̲dād in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 331/August 943, d. on 6 S̲h̲aʿbān 398/16 April 1008 (the respective dates of 371/981 and 448/1056 given by Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa should not be accepted, since Ibn Zurʿa is mentioned by Ibn al-Nadīm (circa 377/987), and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa himself speaks of his relations with Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī, d. 364/975). He studied literature, physics, mathematics and then philosophy under the direction of Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī [ q.v.]; he seems also to have studied medicine, since…

ʿAntarī

(56 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun derived from ʿAntar [ q.v.], denoting in Egypt: 1) a story-teller who narrates the Sīrat ʿAntar ; 2) a short garment worn under the ḳafṭān . The latter usage, assimilated by popular etymology to ʿAntarī, derives from the Turkish Entari, a word of Greek origin. (Ed.) Bibliography Dozy, Suppl. ii, 180 and references quoted.

Navarra

(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Eng. and Fr.: Navarre), a province of northern Spain, whose capital, Pampeluna, abandoned its allegiance to the Muslims in 182/798 and made itself into a semi-independent kingdom. Its history, at the time of Muslim domination, becomes intermingled with that of Pampeluna [see banbalūna ] and with that of the majority of its inhabitants, the Basques or Vascons [see bas̲h̲kunis̲h̲ ]. (Ed.)

al-Muḥillūn

(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., from the form IV verb aḥalla ), literally, “those who make lawful [what is unlawful]”, an expression used in early Islamic historical texts to denote those who had shed the blood of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī [ q.v.]; it was accordingly especially used by those seeking vengeance against the Umayyads for the clash at Karbalāʾ [ q.v.] and by the partisans of the Ahl al-Bayt , the proto-S̲h̲īʿa. Above all, it was used by al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.] at the time of his revolt in Kūfa (66-7/685-7), including by al-Muk̲h̲tār himself when he extracted allegiance ( bayʿa ) fro…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …

Müfettis̲h̲

(134 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of Ar. mufattis̲h̲ , lit. “one who searches out, enquires into something”. In the Ottoman legal system of the 12th/18th century, below the Great Mollās [see mollā ] there was a layer of five judges called müfettis̲h̲ , whose duties were to oversee and enquire into the conducting of the Imperial ewkāf or pious foundations [see waḳf ], three of them being resident in Istanbul and one each in Edirne and Bursa (see Gibb and Bowen, ii, 92). In the 19th century, and with the coming of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] reforms, müfettis̲h̲ was the designation for the overseers an…

Ḥuḳūḳ

(167 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. of ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.], legal rights or claims, and corresponding obligations, in the religious law of Islam. One distinguishes the ḥuḳūḳ Allāh , the rights or claims of Allāh, e.g., the ḥadd [ q.v.] punishments, and the ḥuḳūḳ al-ādamiyyīn , private, and essentially civil, rights or claims. Used of things, ḥuḳūḳ signifies the accessories necessarily belonging to them, such as the privy and the kitchen of a house, and servitudes in general; this term is of common occurrence in the legal formularies ( s̲h̲urūṭ [ q.v.]). In contemporary terminology, ḥuḳūḳ means merely “law” in the modern …

Bad̲j̲imzā

(60 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bagimzā, in the time of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate, was a village north-east of Bag̲h̲dād, some 8 miles from Baʿḳūbā, where the caliph al-Muḳtafī bi-Amr Allāh put to flight the troops of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Muḥammad II under Alp Ḳus̲h̲ Kūn-i Ḵh̲ar in 549/1154. (Ed.) Bibliography Yāḳūt, i, 497, 706 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 129 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 237 ff.

D̲j̲awānrūd

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(local Kurdish d̲j̲wānrō ), a district of Persian Kurdistān lying to the west of Mt. S̲h̲āhō, between Avroman (Hawermān [ q.v.]) in the north, S̲h̲ahrizūr in the west, and Zuhāb and Rawānsar in the south and east. The country is generally mountainous and thickly wooded. The valleys are well watered and very fertile, being in effect the granary of the Avroman area. There is no river now known by this name, but Minorsky derives it from * Ḏj̲āwān-rūd , influenced by Persian d̲j̲awān ‘young’. A Kurdish tribe D̲j̲āwānī, listed by Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 253; Tanbīh , 88),…

Tawfīḳ

(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form II verb waffaḳa “to facilitate, make easy, direct aright”, a term of Islamic theology. Here, tawfīḳ means “facilitating, helpfulness, predisposing towards”, used especially of God’s grace and help towards mankind. In Ḳurʾān, IV, 65/62, it is used by the Hypocrites of their own intentions; in XI, 90/88, by S̲h̲uʿayb [ q.v.] for his hope from God of success in his prophetic mission amongst Midian; in IV, 39/35, of God’s bringing harmony and peace amongst disputants. It is usually regarded by the Islamic theologians as being, with hudā / hidāya

ʿUṭārid

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Muḥammad al-Ḥāsib (“the calculator”) al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im (“the astrologer”), mathematician, astronomer and astrologer who apparently lived in the 3rd/9th century. He wrote various works in the fields of his expertise, including one on the use of the astrolabe and al-Zīd̲j̲ al-kāfī , which are now lost, although they were known to scholars like al-Bīrūnī and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ṣūfī. A work on burning mirrors, K. fi ’l-Marāyā al-muḥriḳa , and another on mineralogy, the K. K̲h̲awāṣṣ al-aḥd̲j̲ār , do, however, survive. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist, ed. Tad̲j̲addud, 336 Ibn…

Parda-Dār

(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), literally “the person who draws the curtain”, a term used among the dynasties of the eastern Islamic world from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period onwards as the equivalent of Arabic ḥād̲j̲ib , i.e. for the court official, the chamberlain, who controlled access to the ruler, the latter being normally veiled from public gaze.. For this function, see Ḥād̲j̲ib . (Ed.)

al-Anbārī, Abū Muḥammad

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḳāsim b. muḥ. b. bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār , traditionist and philologian, d. 304/916 or 305/917. He wrote a commentary on the Mufaḍḍaliyyāt which was revised by his son, Muḥammad: The Mufaḍḍalīyāt ... according to the recension and with the commentary of Abū M. al-Q. b. M. al-Anbārī , ed. Ch. J. Lyall, Oxford 1918-21. (Ed.) Bibliography Fihrist, 75 Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt, 144 al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, xii, 440-1 Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, vi, 196-8 Ibn al-Ḳifṭī, Inbāh al-Ruwāt, iii, 28 A. Haffner, in WZKM, xiii, 344 ff. F. Kern, in MSOS, xi/2, 262 ff. Brockelmann, S I, 37.

Ḥud̲j̲ra

(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), room, apartment, used (with the definite article) especially of the room of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a where the Prophet and his two successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were buried; it is now one of the holiest places of Islam [see al-madīna ]. From the same word is also derived Ḥud̲j̲ariyya , a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fāṭimids, these slaves were organized by al-Afḍal into a sort of military bodyguard under the command of an amīr who held the title of al-Muwaffaḳ. They consisted at this period of 3000 men (see al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ

Ibn Sanāʾ al-Mulk

(390 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Hibat Allāh b. Abī ’l-Faḍl Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Muʿtamid , known as al-Ḳāḍī al-Saʿīd, Arabic poet of the Ayyūbid period famous mainly for the treatise Dār al-ṭirāz which he devoted to the genre of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ [ q.v.]. He was born in Cairo circa 550/1155, and died there in 608/1211; he was educated by Egyptian teachers and, like his father al-Ḳāḍī al-Ras̲h̲īd, embarked on the career of ḳāḍī ; he worked under the direction of al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil, whom he joined at Damascus and to whom he dedicated some pieces of poetry; he also wrote in praise of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin). …
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