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(4,791 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | L.FL. | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
I. Ancient Orient and Egypt [German version] A. General Points Translation by means of an interpreter (Akkadian targumannu; Ugaritic targumiānu; Hittite tarkummija- ('to translate'); Aramaic ta/urgmānā; Arabic tu/arǧumān; Italian turcimanno; cf. dragoman) played an important role in the cultures of the Ancient Orient in their contacts with other ethnic groups. Mesopotamian rulers prided themselves on their command of foreign languages. Especially during the second half of the second millennium BC, Akkadian served as a kind …


(927 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (from ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος; hē koinḕ diálektos, ‘the common language’). Term adopted into Greek linguistic history which refers primarily to a relatively uniform post-classical Greek based on Attic but interspersed with numerous Ionian influences said to have replaced the Ancient Greek dialects and to be the ancestor of modern Greek. The sources consist of a number of no longer Attic but not yet Atticist prose authors in the Hellenistic and Imperial periods (such as Polybius, the NT, or Epictetus), also papyrus and inscriptions. One must, however, give special atte…
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