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Thematic vowel

(198 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Vocalic element used (alone or in combination with preceding sounds) to form word stems (Greek θέμα/ théma). In Indo-European languages, TVs typically appear as e and o; they are characteristic of both nominal stems (e.g. the accusative singular Latin agrum, Greek ἀγρόν/ agrón, Sanskrit ájram, from the underlying stem * h2aǵ-r=o- ‘field’, known as the o-declension) and verbal stems (e.g. the present stem * h2aǵ-e/o- underlying Latin agite/agunt, Greek ἄγετε/ἄγουσι(ν) ( ágete/ ágousi(n)), Sanskrit ajata/ajanti ‘drive (imperative plural)’/‘they drive’). O…

Dual

(226 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Numerical category, which in contrast to the sg. (singular) and pl. (plural) denotes a (conjugate or accidental) duality. While the dual was used extensively in the Indo-European parent language throughout the whole inflection system for nouns and verbs, in most individual Indo-European languages it survives only in a more rudimentary form. The most extensive dual-system is preserved in Indo-Iranian, whereas in Latin, for example, the only vestiges of dual inflection are to be found in duo < duō ‘two’ and ambō ‘both’ (dat.-abl. duōbus, ambōbus). Dual forms occur …

Language change

(756 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. General A universal tendency of human language is perpetual change on all levels caused by external factors (e.g. Language contact) as well as internal ones (e.g. anomalies). Language change (LC) over a long period of time in any given language will first lead to dialectal diversification ( Language strata), then, esp. in cases of geographical separation, may result in a division into related yet independent languages. It is therefore reasonable to assume that not only languag…

Linguistic affinity

(492 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The realization that various languages are genealogically related originated in antiquity. The works of Greek grammarians already show that Latin was not only known to them as a language different from their own but that they also reflected upon the mutual relationship of the two. In fact, the conclusion of Philoxenus [8] - that Latin was descended ‘from the Aeolic dialect of Greek because neither possessed a dual’ (Philoxenus in Hdn., GG 3,2, p. 791, l. 28-30) - was somewhat ak…

Anomalie

(171 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Überbegriff für Unregelmäßigkeiten innerhalb eines sprachlichen Systems. A.en innerhalb der Morphologie (Flexionssystem) entstehen oft durch Lautwandel; sie tendieren dazu, durch Analogie [2] beseitigt zu werden. So konnte z. B. die gr.-homer. Form Ζῆν, die als Akk. Sg. von Ζεύς  di̯ēu̯s auf die in der uridg. Grundsprache durch Wirkung des sog. “Stangschen” Gesetzes entstandene Form di̯ēm zurückgeht, in verschiedener Weise “regularisiert” werden: durch “paradigmatischen Ausgleich” nach dem Gen. /Dat. Sg., Διός /Διί, entstand die F…

Language strata

(763 words)

Author(s): Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main) | Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] I. Overview From a synchronic point of view, ‘language strata’ (LS) represents a cover term for the different forms that a given language takes in its use by individual speakers (idiolect), by speaker groups defined by their social position (sociolect) or by geographically determined speaker communities ( Dialect); from a diachronic point of view, LS refers to the various historical strata of a given language that can be identified on the lexical (inherited and loan vocabulary), grammatical (syntactic or morphological) and phonological levels. The existence of L…

Synkretismus

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L.; Ü:S.KR. | Gippert, Jost
I. Religionswissenschaftlich [English version] A. Allgemeines Im rel. Bereich kann S. als der Prozeß der friedlichen oder strittigen gegenseitigen Durchdringung von Elementen aus zwei oder mehr Traditionen definiert werden [1]. “Trad.” ist hierbei notwendigerweise ein mehrdeutiger Begriff; für die Ant. unterscheidet man herkömmlicherweise zw. “internem S.” und “Kontakt-S.”. Als “interner S.” wird die Übertragung von Erscheinungsformen, Namen und Epitheta von einer Gottheit auf eine andere innerhalb eines einzigen polytheistischen Systems beze…

Analogy

(895 words)

Author(s): Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Philosophical Ἀναλογία, ἀνὰ λόγον ( Analogía, anà lógon) designate originally the mathematical proportion, i.e., the correspondence of numerical or volume relationships (definition: Euc. 5, Def. 5 and 6; 7, Def. 20; Aristot. Eth. Nic. 5,6; 1131 a 6-b9 Poet. 21,11-14; 1457 b 16-30). The teachings about proportions were used in the first instance as a tool to solve problems; it soon developed, however, into a general theoretical construction, which Euclid presented in the fifth book of …

Syncretism

(1,979 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
I. In the context of religious studies [German version] A. General remarks In a religious context, syncretism can be defined as the process of either a peaceable or a contentious mutual permeation of elements taken from two or more traditions [1]. Here 'tradition' is inevitably an ambiguous concept; in considering Antiquity, scholars traditionally distinguish between 'internal syncretism' and 'contact-based syncretism'. 'Internal syncretism' refers to the transfer of manifestations, names and epithets from one deity to another within a single polytheisti…

Analogie

(826 words)

Author(s): Crubellier, Michel (Villeneuve d'Ascq) | Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] philosophisch Ἀναλογία, ἀνὰ λόγον bezeichnen urspr. die mathematische Proportion, d. h. die Gleichheit von Zahlen- oder Größenverhältnissen (Definition: Eukl. elem. 5, Def. 5 und 6; 7, Def. 20; Aristot. eth. Nic. 5,6; 1131 a 6-b9 poet. 21,11-14; 1457 b 16-30). Die Lehre von den Proportionen wurde zunächst als Problemlösungsinstrument benutzt, entwickelte sich jedoch sehr bald zu einer allg. theoretischen Konstruktion, die Euklid im fünften Buch der ›Elemente‹ darstellt. Platon …
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