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Atilicinus

(56 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Jurist, probably a student of  Proculus (Dig. 23,4,17), only known through 28 indirect quotations in later legal compilations. PIR2 A 1292. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia iuris civilis, 1889 (repr. 1960), vol. 1, 71ff. C. A. Maschi, La scienza del diritto all'età dei Flavi, in: Atti Congr. Intern. Studi Vespasianei I, 1981, 64ff.

Ulpianus

(710 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Domitius U. Roman jurist of the Severan period from Tyrus in Syria (Dig. 50,15,1 pr.), probably a student of Papinianus [2. 208 f.] and teacher of Modestinus (Dig. 47,2,52,20). Under Septimius [II 7] Severus, he was assessor for his teacher, who had since become Praetorian prefect (SHA Pesc. Nig. 7,4; SHA Alex. Sev. 26,6), and was probably leader of the chancellery a libellis (the imperial judiciary office) from AD 205 to 209; praefectus [4] annonae (leader of the office ensuring food supply; Cod. Iust. 8,37,4) under Elagabalus [2]; Praetorian prefec…

Thalelaeus

(109 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Professor of law ( antecessor) under Iustinianus [1] I, presumably in Berytus, one of the eight addresses of the Const. Omnem (ordinances for study brought into force with the conclusion of the Digesta in AD 533), who wrote a Greek paraphrase of the Codex (II.) Iustinianus. The work, preserved in the Basilika and their scholia (Byzantium I. B.3.), contains useful information on T.' teachings on the Codex. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Simon, Aus dem Kodexunterricht des T., in: ZRG 86, 1969, 334-383; RIDA 16, 1969, 283-308; ZRG 87, 1…

Urseius Ferox

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist of the early Principate (1st cent. AD), reviewed in at least ten books (Coll. 12,7,9) the opinions of the founders of law schools, on the one hand Sabinus [II 5] and Cassius [II 14], on the other  Proculus [1]. Other than five citations in Ulpian and in Iulius [IV 16] Paulus, the work is known only from the commentary Ad Urseium Ferocem by Iulianus [1]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1201-1224  Kunkel, 145 f.  D. Liebs, Rechtsschulen und Rechtsunterricht im Prinzipat, in: ANRW II …

Law schools

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Principal considerations Schools of law, in the two senses of the training of future legal practitioners and the adherence to particular legal trains of thought can only exist in cultures that have given rise to a legal profession. In antiquity, this is true only of the Roman world. Only for Rome, therefore, as in the post-antique period for the Byzantine empire and the culture of Islam, can the phenomenon of law schools (LS) be discussed sensibly. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] II. Roman Republic and Principate A properly institutionalized syste…

Tryphoninus

(88 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist Claudius T. ( c. 200 AD), presumably of oriental origin [3], pupil of Cervidius Scaevola [1] (Dig. 49,17,19 pr.) and consiliarius of Septimius [II 7] Severus (Dig. 49,14,50). He wrote discussions of controversial legal cases ( Disputationes, 21 B.) and Notae ('notes') on the Digesta and Responsa of his teacher [1; 2]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 H. T. Klami, Entscheidung und Begründung in den Kommentaren Tryphonins zu Scaevolas Responsen, 1975 2 M. Sixto, Las anotaciones de Trifonino, vol. 1, 1989; vol. 2, 1991 3 D. Liebs, J…

Vindius Verus

(66 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist, suffect consul in 138 AD (CIL XVI 84) and consiliarius of Antoninus [1] Pius (SHA Pius 12,1), represented in Iustinianus's [1] Digesta (6th century AD) with only five indirect citations. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1223 f.  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 248 f.  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, 1997, 106.

Vivianus

(59 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A Roman lawyer, active probably at the end of the 1st cent. AD, who wrote a single work [1], often cited by Ulpianus and  Iulius [IV 16] Paulus, either a commentary on edicts [2] or Digesta [3. 34 ff.]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1225 ff. 2 Schulz, 235; 270 3 C. Russo Ruggeri, Viviano giurista minore?, 1997.

II Roman

(108 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[No German version] [II 1] Provincial jurist, beginning of the 3rd cent. AD A provincial jurist of the Greek-speaking area [3], who under Septimius Severus and Caracalla (early 3rd cent. AD) wrote tractates on extraordinary procedural law -- the first in classical jurisprudence ( De cognitionibus: 6 vols.; see [2]) -- and fiscal law ( De iure fisci et populi: 4 vols.), furthermore a commentary on edicts ( Edicti monitorium: 6 vols.; see [1]) as well as Institutiones (3 vols.) and Quaestiones (2 vols.). PIR2 C 231. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 Schulz, 238f. 2 R. Bonini, …

Iuris prudentia

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Concept and Function Iuris prudentia (IP), ‘astuteness in the law’, is the most succint designation for the legal profession (  iuris consultus ), which in antiquity formed an independent discipline only in Rome. In Rome IP did not denote ‘any professional preoccupation with the law’ [2. 1 f.], but only private jurisprudence. Legal practitioners and magistrates were not iuris prudentes, but were instructed by the latter either from case to case as experts or as permanent assessors. For the relevance of a mistake in a point of law (  ignorantia

Hermogenianus

(133 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Jurist from the Hellenistic east of the Roman empire, from AD 293 to 295 magister libellorum (head of the petition office) of Diocletian [1; 3], published in AD 295 the Codex Hermogenianus, a semi-official collection of rescripts of Diocletian from 293 and 294. Excerpts were taken from the collection in the  Fragmenta Vaticana , in the  Collatio legum Mosaicarum et Romanarum and in the  Consultatio and adopted by the Codex Justinianus ( Haec, pr.; Summa § 1). H. also wrote the legal breviary Juris epitomae (6 bks.; re [2]) from which excerpts were taken probably…

Iuris consultus

(320 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Preferred expression for the Roman specialized jurist aside from iuris prudens, peritus, auctor or studiosus. The iuris consultus is an authority ‘consulted’ about law and hence implicitly competent to answer [1. 25; 4. 554], ‘experienced in statutory and customary law’ ( legum et consuetudinis ... peritus, Cic. De or. 1,212). For the designation iuris consultus (IC) neither the literary or the official work nor - in view of the private character of  legal instruction - a formal educational level was decisive but only consultation …

Papinianus, Aemilius

(532 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] This jurist, probably born in the mid second century AD in the eastern half of the province of Africa (cf. [7. 118]), seems to have been a student of Cervidius Scaevola (SHA Carac. 8,2). During the reign of Septimius Severus, with whom he was close friends, he became assessor to the Praetorian prefects (Dig. 22,1,3,3), from AD 194 to 202 he first became member and later head of the government department a libellis (Dig. 20,5,12 pr.; see [7. 118, 121]), thereafter from 205 to 211 he was Praetorian prefect (ILS 2187); his assessors were Iulius [IV 16] …

Cascellius

(132 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (C. Aulus Cascellius). Jurist, pupil of Volcatius, who in turn was taught by Q.  Mucius Pontifex (Dig. 1,2,2,45; Plin. HN 8,144); evident in documents of 73 BC as a senator, he held no further office after his quaestorship, but dedicated himself to practical jurisprudence [2]. The iudicium Cascellianum (Gai. Inst. 4,166a), which he had drafted, allowed the winner of a sponsio trial to claim for material restitution within the framework of prohibitory interdicts on property (a form of interim order for the protection of property) [1] (  restitutio )…

Taruttienus Paternus

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist P. Taruttienus (Taruntenus) Paternus was the head of the chancellery ab epistulis Latinis in AD 171-173 and praetorian prefect under Marcus [II 2] Aurelius (Cass. Dio 71,12,3; 71,33,3) beginning in 177. After the latter's death, T. was relieved of his office about AD 182 and executed for high treason (SHA Comm. 4,7 f.). T. wrote the first legal work on the military ( De re militari, 4 books). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia iuris civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 335 f.  Kunkel, 219-222  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, …

Coruncanius, Ti.

(42 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Consul in 280 BC, first plebeian pontifex maximus in 254, first issued responsa publicly and in association with legal instruction (Dig. 1,2,2,35), did not, however, produce any writings (Dig. 1,2,2,38). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Wieacker, RRG, 528, 535.

Ofilius, Aulus

(139 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (epigraphically also Ofellius). This Roman jurist was a friend as well as a political agent of Caesar. He was a member of the equites, but never held an office. Next to Alfenus [3] Varus he was the most notable student of Sulpicius Rufus (Dig. 1,2,2,44), in whose footsteps he wrote an extensive commentary Ad edictum, which was, however, soon ousted from the market by the Edict commentary of Antistius [II 3] Labeo. Little is known about his Actiones (Pleas, 16 bks.), Ius partitum ('The law and its parts', 5 bks.) and De legibus ad Atticum ('On the laws, to Atticus', 20 bks.…

Tuscianus

(84 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] According to Dig. 1,2,2,53, T. and Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens followed Iavolenus [2] and preceded Iulianus [1] as heads of the Sabine law school at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD. Confusion with Iavolenus, who bore the cognomen Tossianus, is unlikely. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Nicht-literarische röm. Juristen der Kaiserzeit, in: K. Luig, D. Liebs (eds.), Das Profil des Juristen in der europäischen Tradition. Symp. F. Wieacker, 1980, 149-153  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 231-234.

Modestinus Herennius

(378 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (also: Herennius M.). Roman jurist, pupil of Ulpianus (cf. Dig. 47,2,52,20), from the Hellenistic east. It is likely that from AD 223 to 225 he was secretary a libellis to Alexander Severus, and in about 228 praefectus vigilum [4. 195f.]. A rescript of Gordianus [3] III (Cod. Iust. 3,42,5) of the year 239 follows his  ‘not-to-be-despised’ auctoritas as a respondent [3. 25f.]. It is doubtful that he gave the son of Maximinus [2] Thrax instruction in law (SHA Maximinus 27,5) [3. 118f.]. Apart from the Responsa (‘Expert Opinions’, 19 volumes) M. wrote Pandectae, linked t…

Tribonianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From AD 529 until AD 532 'Minister of Justice' under Iustinianus [1] I ( qu. sacri palatii), from 533 until 535 superintendent of the Imperial chancery ( magister officiorum) and from then until his death (presumably in AD 542) again qu. [1. 40-69]. As a connoisseur and admirer of Roman law and the jurisprudence of the Principate, T. was a leading developer of all parts of the Justinianic compilation: the old Codex (II. C.; Const. Haec 1; Summa 2), the Digesta (Deo auctore 3; Tanta pr.), the Institutiones ( Imperatoriam 3; Tanta 11) and the new Codex ( Cordi 2). Whether he pe…

Octavenus

(57 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] This jurist, who flourished during the reigns of the Emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan, is only known from 23 indirect citations in Justinian's Digesta and one citation in the Fragmentum Dositheanum § 12. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 1, 1889, 793-796  A. Berger, s.v. O., RE 17, 1786-1788  Kunkel 150f.

Responsa

(841 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Term and form Responsa (lit.: 'responses', sing. responsum) were originally rulings or opinions of sacred law made by the Roman colleges of priests (the augures, fetiales, haruspices and pontifices) [1. 19-21; 2. 313 f., 560-563]. According to Dig. 1,2,2,6, the pontifical college ( pontifex ; hence: responsa pontificum) issued preventative or cautelary responsa for the formulation and interpretation of legal transactions ( cautio in the sense of a precaution) or suits ( actio), and responsa for the organs of judicial administration in respect of past…

Iavolenus

(302 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] C.I. Calvinus Geminius Kapito Cornelius Pollio Squilla Q. Vulkacius Scuppidius Verus Senator under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, cos. suff. Senator, who had a prolonged praetorian career under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, ending as governor in Lusitania, proconsul in Baetica and consul suffectus. ILS 1060; PIR2 J 13. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L.I. Priscus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, successor of Caelius Sabinus ( Arulenus [1]) and predecessor of  Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens as head of th…

Tertullianus

(2,381 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman jurist, c. 200 Roman jurist of the Severan Period (around AD 200), wrote Quaestiones ('Legal questions', 8 bks.) and the only monograph De castrensi peculio ('On the property of those in military service', 1 bk.) in the legal literature. Justinian's Digesta preserves only five fragments from the two works [1]. The identification, suggested by Euseb. Hist. eccl. 2,2,4, of this iuris antiqui interpres ('interpreter of the old law', Cod. Iust. 5,70,7,1a) with the legally proficient Church Father T. [2] is not inconceivable [2; 3]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Ma…

Minicius

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] 1st-cent. Roman jurist First-cent. AD Roman jurist, probably a pupil of Sabinus (Dig. 12,1,22), whose tradition he continues in a collection of responses [1] or a commentary [2]. Apart from a citation in Sex. Pomponius (Dig. 19,1,6,4), this work is known only through an extract annotated by Salvius Iulianus [1] ( Ex Minicio). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 E. Bund, Salvius Iulianus, in: ANRW II 15, 1976, 435f. 2 D. Liebs, in: HLL 4, 103. [German version] [2] M. Acilianus Praetor, AD 97 From Brixia, son of M. [7]. Of equestrian origin, admission…

Neratius

(839 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
The senatorial family came from Saepinum, where a large number of their inscriptions and buildings have been recovered. It entered the Senate no later than under Emperor Nero; its last members are attested in the 4th cent. [German version] [1] L.N.Marcellus Consul ord. II. AD 129 Senator. His natural father was probably N. [4], and his brother was N. [6]. N. was adopted by M. Hirrius Fronto Neratius [2] Pansa, together with whom he was admitted into the ranks of the patricians by Vespasian in AD  73/4. Until the consulate, he had a career without many offices; in 95, he became cos. suff. as a fo…

Arulenus

(141 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caelius Sabinus, Cn. Suffect consul in AD 69. Very influential jurist at the time of Vespasian (Dig. 1,2,2,53); successor to  Cassius Longinus as head of the Sabinian law school, he wrote a commentary Ad edictum aedilium curulium. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 142ff. 2 PIR I2 1194. [German version] [2] Iunius A. Rusticus, Q. Cos. suff. 92 AD In AD 66 as tribunus plebis he wanted to intercede in the Senate on behalf of Thrasea (Tac. Ann. 16,26,4f.); 70 praetor, 92 suffect consul (AE 1…

Patricius

(421 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] British saint, 5th cent. (St. Patrick). P., a Briton, was abducted and taken to Ireland when he was 16; he was sold as a slave and fled six years later. Following a "voice of the Irish" (Confessio 23), he returned to Ireland (in AD 432?) as a bishop. He died on the 17th of March (461? or 491?). His charisma is attested by his autobiography, entitled Confessio [1. vol. 1, 56-91; 2; 4], and the prophetic, threatening Epistola ad milites Corotici [1. vol. 1, 91-102; 2; 4]. P. is marginal to Latin literature. His difficult Latin [6] was nourished by the Bible, whose …

Pactumeius

(358 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Aurelius P. Clemens Senator from Africa, 2nd cent. AD He was admitted to the Senate by Vespasian and Titus as a praetor and was one of the first senators from Africa. His brother is P. [3]. PIR2 P 36. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.P.Clemens Roman senator and lawyer Roman senator, lawyer and descendant of P. [1]. ILS 1067 from Cirta, his home town, sets out his cursus honorum ; it led him via the praetorship, a cura for the tax assessment of Syrian municipalities ( ad rationes civitatium Syriae putandas) to the praetorian governorship of Cilicia, duri…

Pegasus

(517 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Πήγασος/ Pḗgasos, Lat. Pegasus). [German version] [1] A magical winged horse A magical winged horse, associated with the Corinthian hero Bellerophon. When Perseus [1] cuts off the head of Medusa, P. and Chrysaor [4] spring from her carcass (Hes. Theog. 280f.). P.'s father is Poseidon (Hes. Theog. 276). According to Hesiod, Poseidon sends P. to Bellerophon (Hes. fr. 43a,82ff. M.-W.), while according to others the latter receives from Athena a golden bridle that possesses the necessary magical power - only …

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta

Fufidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a plebeian family (further development of Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, the home town of Cicero. [German version] [1] Rom. eques, 1st cent. BC Roman equestrian, in 57 BC creditor to Apollonia in Illyria (Cic. Pis. 86). Possibly identical with the F. from whom Cicero bought a country estate in Arpinum for his brother in 54 (Ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), who appointed Cicero joint heir in 47 (Att. 11,13,3) and whom Horace attacked as a profiteer (Sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [German version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 BC Allegedly ex-centurio (O…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Interpretatio

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
I. Law [German version] A. Concept Interpretatio is interpretation, not only of texts but also of oral declarations and other matters of legal import. The topos of simple truth requiring no mediator (Petron. Sat. 107,15) does not apply to the specialist knowledge of astrologers (cf.  Divination), philologists (on both: Cic. Div. 1,34; 2,92) and jurists (Cic. Leg. 2,59). At the end of the Republic, the words interpres (‘interpreter’) and interpretari (‘to interpret’) become conflated into the abstract interpretatio [3. 80ff., 91ff.]; this is already true of legal interpre…

Pedius

(368 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman gens, prominent from the 1st cent. BC; also attested in Delos. [German version] [1] P., Q. Consul suffectus 43 BC, son of Caesar's sister Julia C. 90-43 BC, son (not grandson as in Suet. Iul. 83,2) of Caesar's sister Iulia [1. 687] and a legate of Caesar in Gaul  58-55 (Caes. Gall. 2,2,1; 2,11,3). As praetor in 48, P. suppressed a revolt by T. Annius [I 14] Milo (Caes. Civ. 3,22). In 46/5, as a legate of Caesar, P. began the Spanish campaign with Q. Fabius [I 22] Maximus (Bell. Hisp. 2,2; Cass. Dio 43,31,1) and triumphed on 13 December 45 illegally ex Hispania (InscrIt 13,1,567; Ca…

Cratinus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος; Kratînos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Son of Callimedes, important poet of the Attic Old  Comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Biographical information The first appearance of C. is documented for the late 450s BC [1. test. 4ab; cf. test. 5]; his death probably occurred between 423 ( Terminus post quem: his last piece, the Pytínē/‘The Bottle’; cf. [1. test. 3]) and 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703, he is allegedly dead [1. test. 10]); he allegedly lived to be 94 years old [1. test. 3].…

Trebatius

(265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, probably derived from a place name (Treba, Trebula), very common in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] Samnite leader in the Social Wars, c. 100 BC Leader ( praetor) of the Samnites in the Social Wars [3], he was defeated in 89 BC by C. Cosconius [I 1] on the Aufidus and escaped to Canusium (App. Civ. 1,228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T. Testa, C. Roman lawyer, 1st cent. BC Roman jurist ( c. 84 BC until after AD 4), pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Dig. 1,2,2,45) and teacher of  Antistius [II 3] Labeo (Dig. 1,2,2,47). He wa…

Marinianus

(210 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Jurist, teacher of law in Rome, 4th cent. Jurist from Galatia in Asia Minor, belonging to the group around Symmachus. M was a teacher of law in Rome (Symmachus, Ep. 3,23,2) and in AD 383 vicarius Hispaniae (Cod. Theod. 9,1,14). PLRE I, 559f. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Die Jurisprudenz im spätantiken Italien, 1987, 64, 98. [German version] [2] Flavius Avitus M. Consul in AD 423 Attested in AD 422 as praetorian prefect of Italia, Illyria and Africa, and in 423 as consul, perhaps patricius. Along with his wife he contributed to the renov…

Volusius

(944 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name from Etruria, whose bearers first appear in the 1st cent. BC. With V. [II 2] Saturninus the family was ennobled under the emperor Augustus and in the 1st cent. AD was able to amass considerable wealth (large burial site on the via Appia: CIL VI 7281-7393). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Haruspex (Haruspices) in the retinue of C. Verres 73-71 BC, several times appointed recuperator in - according to Cicero (Verr. 2,2,75; 2,3,28; 54; 137) - unfair lawsuits. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., Cn. Travelled with C. Pompt…

Fulvius

(3,286 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentes name, derived from fulvus (‘reddish yellow, brownish yellow’ [1. 1,561], probably named after hair colour); further evidence: [2. 170], inscriptions also Folvius (ILLRP 124 et passim). The Roman gens probably came from Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; cf. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. HN 7,136), where F. [I 15] also had put up works of art from the spoils of war. The most important branches are initially the Centumali, Curvi and Paetini, since the 3rd cent. BC the Flacci and Nobiliores. Genealogical tree: [3. 231f.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Bambalio…

Florentinus

(324 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Gaulish correspondent of Symmachus Came from a Gaulish family; correspondent of Symmachus (Epist. 4,50-57), probably a pagan. In AD 379 he probably held the notary's office. It is doubtful whether he is identical with the homonymous comes sacrarum largitionum [1. 100-103]; in 395 quaestor sacri cubiculi; from 395 to 397, thus for an unusually long time, attested as praefectus urbi Romae, proved successful during a famine. Claudian [2] dedicated the second book of De raptu Proserpinae to him (praef. 50). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Delmaire. PLRE…

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Fulcinius

(315 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (Schulze 169). I. Republican time [German version] [I 1] F., C. Roman envoy 438 BC in Fidenae Roman envoy, killed by the Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the Rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,5; Liv. 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] C.F. Fabius Maximus Optatus Senator from Cartennae, end of 2nd/ beginning of 3rd cent. AD Senator, probably from Cartennae, who certainly attained the praetorship and had a legatio in Baetica, probably at the end of the 2nd/beginning of the 3rd cents. AD. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Le Gl…

Alfen(i)us

(329 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Avitianus, L., governor under the Severi Avitianus, L., praetoric governor of Arabia and consularian governor of Pannonia inferior in the time of the Severi; frater Arvalis (present in the collegium AD 218 and AD 231). PIR2 A 519. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) Bibliography Leunissen, 256, 262. [German version] [2] Senecio, L., governor (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) Senecio, L., son of a procurator Aug. by the same name, from Cuicul in Numidia, legatus Aug. pro praetore in Coele Syria under Severus, and governor of Britannia between 205 and 207. PIR2 A 521. Birley, A. R.…

Venuleius

(355 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, variant of Venilius (Schulze, 378; 458). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Son of V. [4]. Cos. ord. in AD 123; procos. of Asia 138/9, SEG 36, 987. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège, 338-342. [German version] [2] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Senator. Son of V. [1]. Although a Patrician, after a praetorship he took on command of the Legio I Italica in Moesia Inferior. Cos. suff. under Antoninus [1] Pius; also a consular legate in Hispania Tarraconensis. Cos. ord. II in AD 168. Eck, Werner (Cologne) B…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Ulpius

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [0] C. U. Antoninus Proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia (communication from M. Waelkens). Whether he is identical with the senator U. Antoninus who participated in the secular games of AD 204 [1] must remain an open question. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, s. v. U. (25), RE Supplementum 14, 935. [German version] [1] M. U. Arabianus Senator from Amastris [4] in Pontus; cos. suff.; consular governor of Syria Palaestina (Syria) between AD 187 and 190 (IGR III 85 = [1. 163, no. 16]); procos. of Africa around 200 (CIL VIII 15876). His son was M. U. Domitius…

Aufidius

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium ([1]; ThlL 2,1338f.). Bearers of this name are known since the 2nd cent. BC in Rome and occupy important positions, especially in the imperial era. I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Au. Took part in the murder of Q.  Sertorius in 73 BC Took part in the murder of Q.  Sertorius in 73 BC (Plut. Sert. 26f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Au., Cn. Tribunus plebis 170 BC Tribune of the people in 170 BC (MRR 1,420). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] Au., Cn. Praetor before 100 BC praetor before 100 BC (Syll.3 715; MRR 3,29). Elvers, Kar…

Gaius

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[II] Widespread Roman praenomen (probably connected with the Latin family name Gavius, but not related to gaudere), abbreviated as C., more rarely G.; in late Greek inscriptions also Γα ( Ga). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Physician of the school of Herophilus Physician of the school of Herophilus, probably 1st cent. BC or AD, wrote about hydrophobia (Caelius Aurelianus morb. ac. 3,113-4). He explained that this disease affected the brain as well as the meninges, because the nerves surrounding the stomach and responsi…

Aquillius

(1,358 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (less commonly Aquilius; see ThLL, 2,375), in the 5th cent. BC also patrician, but the bearers do not appear to be historical. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Aquillii fratres (end of the 6th cent. BC) Supposedly conspired against the newly established Republic and were executed (Liv. 2,4-5; Plut. Pobl. 4-7 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. (Tuscus ?), C. Cos. 487 BC Consul in 487 BC, fought according to tradition against the Hernici and received an ovatio (Liv. 2,40,14; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,67,1; MRR 1,19-20).    Elvers, Ka…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Flavius

(4,130 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian gentile name, derived from the individual cognomen Flavus (‘the blond one’) through the suffix of affiliation -ius, abbreviated form Fl. The bearers of the name that was already common in the Republican period were initially politically unimportant; F. [I 5] was the first one to attain to Roman nobility. In the Imperial period the name was spread further in the Roman empire as a result of the granting of citizenship by the Flavian Emperors Vespasian, Titus and Domitian (AD 68-96). In Late Antiquity (4th-6th cents.) F. was initially gentilicium of the family of  Consta…

Aemilius

(4,870 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Nomen gentile Name of a very old patrician line (more often written Aimilius), after which the tribus Aemilia, one of the oldest rustic tribes, is also named. Republican pseudo-genealogy traced the gens back to Mamercus, said to be the son of Pythagoras or of Numa, or to Trojan ancestors: Aemilia, a daughter of Aeneas; Aimylos, a son of Ascanius; or to King Amulius himself (Plut. Aemilius 2; Numa 8; Romulus 2; Fest. 22 L; Sil. Pun. 8,294-296) [1]. The Aemilii belonged to one of the most respected lines in the R…

Antistius

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Greek Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet; although it is not possible to be certain, because the name is fairly common, A. is usually equated with the Macedonian C. Antistius Vetus, who in AD 11 was sent into exile because of treason (Tac. Ann. 3,38), or with the praetor A. Sosianus, who suffered the same destiny in AD 62 (Reason: factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosiis... Tac. Ann. 14,48; 16,14; 21; cf. Hist. 4,44). His four epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus are balanced, elegant variations of traditional motives…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Plautius

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, in the late Republic also often spelt Plotius, with no clear difference in use (cf. Claudius/Clodius). The earliest epigraphic evidence comes from Praeneste (among it the maker of the Ficoronian Cista, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), while the family in Rome achieved political eminence after 367 BC (Münzer therefore considers them to have migrated from Praeneste [1. 42; 44f.; 412]), providing seven consuls between 358 and 318; their migration may explain their interest in integrating Latini (cf. P. [I 5]…

Livius

(6,493 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, who probably came from Latium and was accepted into Roman nobility when Latium was integrated politically in 338 BC ( Latin law). The most important branches were first the Salinatores, then the Drusi (on the cognomen see Drusus). The third wife of Augustus and mother of the emperor Tiberius, Livia [2] Drusilla came from this branch (Stemma see Augustus; the family history of the branch is in Suet. Tib. 3). The line of the Salinatores was continued in the late Republic by the Livii Ocellae, who i.a. produced Livia Ocella, the stepmother of the emperor Galba [2]. E…

Gregorius

(2,969 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Γρηγόριος; Grēgórios) [German version] [I 1] Thaumaturgus Lawyer and theologian, 3rd cent. AD G. was born between AD 210 and 213, as the son of a wealthy pagan family in Neocaesarea/ Pontus (modern Niksar), probably under the name of Theodorus. In 232/3 (or 239), after a thorough elementary education G. actually wanted to study law in  Berytus/Beirut but before this in  Caesarea [2] (Palestine) got to know  Origen who taught there and then studied under his supervision the ‘Christian s…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Aelius

(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Iuventius

(1,470 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman cognomen [1. 281; 482; 2. 735]. The gens belonged to the municipal nobility of Tusculum, came into Roman politics around 200 BC and with I. [I 6] achieved the sole consulate in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, to which they referred to also later (Cic. Planc. 12, 15; 18f. and others; cf. Catull. 24,1-3). The most important families were the Thalnae (also Talnae in inscriptions) and the Laterenses. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Alleged first curule aedile of the plebs, 4th cent. BC According to fictitious family tradition, the first curule aedile of the plebs at the end …

Porcius

(3,528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family from Tusculum. In the belief that the family had been pig-breeders, in antiquity their name was derived from porcus  (Varro Rust. 2,1,10 etc.). From the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Catones and Licinii branches belonged to Rome's leading class and at the beginning of the 2nd century, they attained the consulship with  Cato [1] (Censorius) and P. [I 13]. The exact blood relationship between the most prominent bearer of the name, Cato [1], and his great-grandson, P. [I 7] Cato (Uticensis), is not completely clarified. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic…

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …
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