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Theaetetus

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Θεαίτητος; Theaítētos). [German version] [1] T. of Athens, mathematician, c. 400 BC Mathematician, a native of Athens, pupil of Theodorus [2] of Cyrene and later a member of Plato's Academy ( Akadḗmeia ). In Plato's [1] dialogue named after him, T. appears (together with the aged Theodorus [2]) as about fifteen years old in 399 BC; he was therefore born c. 414. Plato describes him as gentle, courageous and quick to apprehend. After he had been wounded in the battle of Corinth, T. contracted dysentery and died in 369. T. contributed substantially to the theory of irrational quantiti…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Michaelios Grammatikos

(97 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Otherwise unknown author of an epigram praising the image of Agathias (whom he extols as an orator and poet), of his brother and of his father Memnonius (Anth. Pal. 16,316). The poem will presumably have been affixed to the base of a statuary group in Myrina [4] (the town in l. 1), perhaps not long after the death of Agathias (after AD 580). Identification with later poets of the same name is improbable. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography Av. and A. Cameron, The Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8, Note 18.

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Panteleius

(140 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παντέλειος; Pantéleios). Epic writer, estimated to have lived before the 5th cent. AD; nine hexameters are extant (cf. Stob. 3,7,63): a rhetorical encomium, put into the mouth of a Persian, to the Athenian polemarch Callimachus [1] who on the battlefield of Marthon was supported by the same arrows that had lethally pierced him. The short fragment that was published in the 16th cent. in the appendix to Wechel's edition of epigrams (cf. [1]) is sometimes included without justification in the Anthologia Planudea ([2], also [3]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliogra…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Callicter

(111 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλικτήρ; Kalliktḗr) of Manesium. Writer of epigrams, possibly from the 1st or 2nd cent. AD, to whom are ascribed the satirical two-line epigrams from the Anth. Pal. 11,2; 5; 6 and, according to Planudes, 333. The epigrams against doctors, 11,118-122, are probably his also; Planudes however assigns them to Nicarchus. The erotic poems Anth. Pal. 5,29 and 45 are attributed to the name Cillactor; the rarity of both names, not attested elsewhere and still of uncertain form, argues in favour of identification with C. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 114f. V…

Hermocreon

(168 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Greek architect, 3rd cent. BC Greek architect of the 3rd cent. BC; according to Str. 10,5,7 and 13,1,13, he built a state altar, 1 stadium long ( Measures), from the material of an abandoned temple near Parium; it is presumably depicted on coins (London, BM) and could be compared with the Hieronian monumental altar of  Syracusae. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography Overbeck, 2086-2087 (sources) G. A. Mansuelli, s.v. H., EAA 4, 1961, 13 (with fig. 18). [German version] [2] Epigrammatist, 3rd cent. BC Epigrammatist whose existence cannot be proven with…

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  Lycus  and later at the conquest of Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) and became commander of the garrison there. In the battle of  Raphia in 217 he led the part of Antiochus' phalanx whose weakness contributed to the downfall of the Seleucids (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibli…

Myrinus

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μυρῖνος; Myrȋnos). Elegant epigrammatic poet in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus. Four poems are extant, showing him as a skillful imitator of Leonidas [3] of Tarentum; however, he also displayed an independent creativity, in a satirical setting (Anth. Pal. 6,254: a dedication to Priapus by a hermaphrodite frail with age; 11,67: against an old woman behaving like a child) as well as in an idyllic-pastoral one (ibd. 6,108 and 7,703; the latter poem is erroneously placed amongst the epitaphs). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II.1, 286-289; 2, 319-322.

Thyillus

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θύιλλος; Thýillos). Epigrammatist in Cicero's circle (Cic. Att. 1,9,2; 1,16,15: 67 and 61 BC, cf. [1; 3]). Three poems survive: a description of a spring (Anth. Pal. 6,170), an epitaph (perhaps for an inscription) for a Cybele priestess (Anth. Pal. 7,223 = GVI 707,  cf. Philod. ibid. 7,222), a variation on the return of spring (ibid. 10,5, cf. Leonidas [3], ibid. 10,1 etc.). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 692 2 FGE, 95-99 3 O. Masson, À propos du dernier livre de D. L. Page, FGE, in: RPh 58, 1984, 98 f.

Flaccus

(255 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘floppy-eared’), probably originally an individual cognomen, in the Republican period especially widespread in the senatorial families of the Fulvii, Norbani and Valerii, and in the Imperial period also among numerous other families. Nickname of the poet Q.  Horatius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Statilius F. Writer of epigrams Writer of epigrams. The cognomen F. is often mentioned in combination with the nomen Statilius (Στατύλλιος Φλάκκος; Statýllios Phlákkos). He lived at the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, if the Latin ver…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Iunior

(101 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Author of a dedicatory inscription (six distichs under the heading Ἰουνίωρος; Iouníōros), in which a statue of Aphrodite proclaims that it was erected in Sinuessa (Campania) next to a temple with a view of the sea: Eon (ᾘῶν; Ēiôn, v. 3), the one performing the dedication, introduces herself as a freedwoman of Drusus (the Elder or the Younger?) and his wife (v. 4). It cannot be proved that this poet is identical with Seneca's friend Lucilius Iunior or with the epigrammatist  Pompeius Macer Iunior. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography EpGr 810 = Anth. Pal. appe…
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