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Priska

(269 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg)
[English version] (Πρίσκα, in der Apg Priskilla/Πρίσκιλλα; lat. Prisca, Priscilla). P. und ihr Ehemann Aquila [4] waren Mitte des 1. Jh. n. Chr. als christl. Missionare tätig. Infolge des Edikts des Kaisers Claudius [III 1] (Ausweisung der Juden, Apg 18,2; Suet. Claud. 25) verließ das judenchristl. Ehepaar Rom, um in Korinth das Zeltmachergewerbe fortzusetzen, begegnete um das J. 50 n. Chr. Paulus [2] und begleitete ihn nach Ephesos. Die Bed. P.s als Missionarin, Apostelin, Lehrerin und Leiterin einer Ha…

Eclecticism

(690 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg)
[English version] The term eclecticism, widely used today in a negative sense to denote an imitative, dependent, combinative mode of philosophising, stands from Antiquity on for a model of philosophical reflection that, eschewing connection with a particular school (or sect), instead selects the best from all teachings. At the turn of the 15th cent., Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola recalled the 'selective philosophers' (Diog. Laert. 1.21), who, like bees, chose everywhere the things that please…

Thecla

(242 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg)
[German version] (Θέκλα/ Thékla, Latin Thecla). Despite the only relatively late literary evidence (Paul, Acts of; end of the 2nd cent. AD) for Paul's pupil T., she went on to become the most prominent female saint of Christian Late Antiquity. A sermon by Paul on abstinence motivated the young woman from Iconium in Asia Minor to abandon her plans to marry, in order to follow the Apostle instead. By miraculous divine interventions, T. survived two death sentences, but was nevertheless worshipped as a …

Prisca

(360 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Missionary, 1st cent. (Πρίσκα/ Prísca, in Acts Πρίσκιλλα/ Prískilla; Latin Prisca, Priscilla). In the middle of the 1st cent. AD, P. and her husband Aquila [4] worked as Christian missionaries. As a result of the edict of emperor Claudius [III 1] (expulsion of the Jews, Acts 18:2; Suet. Claud. 25), the Jewish-Christian couple left Rome to continue their tent making in Corinth (spreading the Gospel whilst supporting themselves through additional, unrelated work). They encountered Paulus [II 2] c. AD 50, accompanying him to Ephesus. P.’s importance as a …

Maria

(1,540 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Petersen, Silke (Hamburg)
I. Roman women [German version] [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1]; one was the wife of M. Gratidius [2] and mother of C. Marius [I 7] Gratidianus, the other one was the mother of C. Lusius [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Possibly wife of Honorius Mentioned by Claudianus (Laus Serenae 69), possibly wife of Honorius [2], the brother of Theodosius I, therefore the mother of Serena and Thermantia. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography J. R. Martindale, Notes on the Consuls of 381 and 382, in: Hi…

Maria

(1,414 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Petersen, Silke (Hamburg)
I. Römerinnen [English version] [I 1] Name zweier Schwestern des C. Marius [I 1] Name zweier Schwestern des C. Marius [I 1]; eine war die Ehefrau des M. Gratidius [2] und Mutter des C. Marius [I 7] Gratidianus, die andere Mutter des C. Lusius [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] vielleicht Ehefrau des Honorius Erwähnt bei Claudianus (Laus Serenae 69), vielleicht Ehefrau des Honorius [2], des Bruders Theodosius' I., somit Mutter der Serena und Thermantia. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography J.R. Martindale, Notes on the Consuls o…

Frau

(4,768 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Brosius, Maria (Oxford) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt) | Et al.
I. Alter Orient, Ägypten und Iran [English version] A. Einführung Die Kenntnis über den Status von F. beruht weitgehend auf Texten juristischer Natur (Rechtsurkunden, Rechtsbücher, königliche Erlasse). Dementsprechend betont die bisherige Forschung v.a. die rechtlichen Aspekte der Stellung von F. in Familie und Gesellschaft. Nichtjuristiche Texte unterschiedlicher Genres enthalten Nachrichten über das Wirken von F. aus den Familien der Eliten, insbes. denen der königlichen Clans. So nimmt die hethit. Köni…

Woman

(7,947 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Brosius, Maria (Oxford) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | RU.PA. | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient, Egypt and Iran [German version] A. Introduction Knowledge of the status of women is largely based on texts of a legal nature (legal documents, law books, royal decrees). Accordingly, research to date emphasizes primarily the legal aspects of the position of women in family and society. Non-legal texts from a variety of genres contain information on the activities of women from the families of the elite, particularly those of the royal clan. Thus, the Hittite royal wife Puduḫepa (13th ce…