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Castulo

(287 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian settlement 7 km south of Linares (possibly the modern Cazlona, province of Jaén) above the right bank of the Guadalimar. Lead and silver mines, communication links with the Iberian east coast and the Atlantic ( via Augusta and Guadalquivir) and the fertile surrounding countryside governed the history of C. The first settlement (La Muela) is i.a. verified by a metallurgical workshop (8th cent. BC), as well as a sanctuary, which was later built on top. Nec…

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Modern Évora in Portugal Today Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); its identity is confirmed by inscriptions and archaeological remains (fort, …

Minius

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Spanish river (Str. 3,3,4: also Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Hisp. 301: also Βαίτις/ Baítis), modern Miño; Name according to [1] perhaps Iberian, according to [2] Etruscan, though this is unlikely [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. The ancient derivation from minium (‘cinnabar’, Just. Epit. 44,3,4; Isid. Orig. 19,17,7) is unfounded. M. and its tributaries had the same course as they do now [4. 276], but contained more water. According to Str. l.c. it was navigable for 800 stages (i.e. 160 km), but today this is only about 100 km. On its banks was the Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (P…

Baliares

(399 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General The modern B. were named Gymnḗsiai by the Greeks, because their inhabitants went naked during the summer. The two main islands were referred to respectively as insula maior and insula minor; the names of Maiorica and Menorica (modern Mallorca and Minorca) are only found from the 3rd cent. AD (Georgius Cyprianus, p. 108, 673 Gelzer). Apart from those two islands, Plin. HN 3,78 also lists Capraria, Triquada and parva (sc. insula) Hannibalis, also Menariae. They can undoubtedly be identified with the islands of Cabrera, Porrasa, Sech and the Las …

Carpetani

(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of that region. Hannibal clashed with them when he went to war against the Olcades in 221 BC, and against the Vaccaei a year later. When he wanted to cross the Tagus, he faced opposition from the C. (Pol. 3,14,5-9). Hannibal attacked them again in 219 BC during the siege of  Saguntum, alongside the  Oretani (Liv. 21,11,13). In line with most Spanish trib…

Sexi

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars Phoenician settlement (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 43: Σίξος/ Síxos; Str. 3,4,2; 3,5,5: Ἐξιτανοί/ Exitanoí; Mela 2,94; Plin. HN 3,8: Sexi Firmum Iulium; Ptol. 2,4,7: Σέξ/ Séx; It. Ant. 405,3: Saxetanum) on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula, probably at modern Almuñécar, to date not excavated. It is scarcely recognisable today owing to considerable sedimentation that the Phoenician settlement was originally on a peninsula or island, su…

Acra Leuce

(225 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Ἀκρα Λευκή; Ákra Leukḗ) Because of its Greek name, García y Bellido [2. 5925,10,3] took the town's foundation by  Hamilcar, as reported in Diod. Sic. 25,10,3 f.; 25,10,12, as evidence for the existence of a preceding Greek settlement at A. Generally, based on a rather questionable interpretation of the toponymy of Acra -- Castrum Album/Lucentum/Alicante -- its location is supposed to be within the municipal area of Alicante; other …

Massieni

(105 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Mastieni). Iberian tribe on the southeast coast of Spain (Avien. 422; 425; 450), with dwelling places from the Chrysus (modern Guadiaro) River to Carthago Nova [1. 52, 197, 186f.]. The principal town was Mastia (cf. Pol. 3,24,2; 4, here called Ταρσήιον/ Tarsḗion, indicating that it probably belonged to Tartessus' sphere of influence). Hasdrubal [2] may have founded Carthago Nova on the site of Mastia around 221 BC. The Bastetani, which may possibly be identified with the M., later appeared in their place [2]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.),…

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Mons Medullius

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Mountain in north-eastern Spain; the name is Celtic [1]. Here, in 25 BC, the Cantabri put up the last resistance against the army of Augustus (Flor. 2,33,50; Oros. 6,21,7). Schulten [2. 170] identified the MM, probably wrongly, with the Monte S. Julián at Tuy on the Miño; it is much more likely to have been (cf. [3. 153ff.]) on the Sil near  Las Médulas (Prov. León). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 528 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1 3 F.J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989. P. Barceló, Das Kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olsh…

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Mellaria

(153 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία; Mellaría). The name of two cities. According to [3], it is uncertain whether it is Iberian, Celtic or Latin; according to [1; 2. vol. 8, 352] it is Latin for ‘City of Honey’). [German version] [1] City in the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar In the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar, between Traducta (near modern Tarifa) and Baelo, known from Sertorius' landing near M. in 80 BC (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. vol. 4, 169]; cf. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. HN 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; It. Ant. 407,2). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City near modern Fuente Ovejuna M. (Baetu…

Mirobriga

(169 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Merobriga). Name of three towns in Spain (celtic ‘fort of Miro’ [1. 599]). [German version] [1] Town near modern Capilla This item can be found on the following maps: Town near modern Capilla east of Mérida near Almadén (cf. CIL II 2365f.), located by Plin. HN 3,14 in Baeturia Turdolorum and mentioned among the oppida non ignobilia (cf. Ptol. 2,4,10; 6,58; Itin. Anton. 444,6) [2; 3] Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town in the area of Salmantica Town in the area of Salmantica (modern Salamanca) and Bletisa (modern Ledesma): CIL II 858f. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …

Astigi(s)

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae The modern Ecija on the Genil river (province of Seville), capital of one of the four conventus of the Baetica (Plin. HN 3,12); after 27 BC, it became an Augustan colony with the epithet Firma (CIL II 1471; 1630), part of the tribus Papiria. A. was probably the most important exporter of oil in Hispania, as demonstrated by the numerous broken amphorae found on Monte Testaccio in Rome. In late antiquity, A. was an important diocese, whose bishops attended most of the Hispanic councils. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliograph…

Baetulo

(37 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River (modern Besos) and municipium (modern Badalona) of the  Lacetani on the eastern coast of Spain (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6,19; CIL II 4606-4608; 4611). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Schulten 1, 1974, 305.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Carteia

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Located close to the mouth of the Guadarranque near Algeciras in Spain (near Cieza, province of Murcia), C. played an important role because of its Phoenician acculturation. During the Second Punic War, the Romans defeated the fleet of the Carthaginian  Adherbal [3] near C. in 206 BC. From the base of C., the Roman general  Laelius began the negotiations which were to lead to the surrender of  Gades (Liv. 28,30,3). In 171 BC, C. became a colonia Latina libertorum, the first outside Italy. The town remained loyal to Rome throughout, e.g. in the war against V…

Contrebia

(204 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘communal dwelling’ [1. 1109]). Fortress retreat of the Celtiberian  Lusones [1. 136]. Its location cannot be accurately established; probably not identical with today's Daroca, C. was nevertheless nearby, in the Hiloca valley south-west of Zaragoza ([1. 136; 2. 212]; see also the conjectures in [4. 247]). Epigraphical evidence is almost entirely lacking (only CIL II 4935?), but, on the other hand, coins have been found with Iberian legends [5. 93]. C. is mentioned fairly often in the context of the Celtiberian wars (181 BC: Liv. 40,33; App. Ib. 42 [ Co…

Baetis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern river Guadalquivir. Its ancient course was the same as today, but originally, its delta had four branches (Avien. 288ff.), and two in the Augustan period (Str. 3,1,9; 2,11); nowadays, it discharges into the Atlantic from a single course; the silted branches of the delta can still be detected. Its high water levels seem to have remained unchanged: large seagoing vessels sailed upriver to Hispalis, small ones to Ilipa, and river barges to Corduba (Str. 3,2,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Casal, El Guadalquivir, 1975 A. Ruiz Rodriguez, M. Molinos…
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