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(147 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] (Hebr. Dotān, Dotayin; Greek Δωθάειμ/ Dōtháeim; Arab. Tall Dūṯān). Town 15 km north-west of Samaria, not mentioned except in the Bible (finds of the name t/dn in Egyptian lists of the 18th dynasty refer to a town in Lebanon), named in the Joseph story as a station on the trading route from Gilead to Egypt (Gen. 37,17; 25), in the Elisha cycle surrounded by Arameans (2 Kgs 6,13), scene in the fictitious Judith novella from the Hellenistic period (Jud. 3,9; 4,6; 7,3; 18; 8,3). As excavations by S. Free (19…


(431 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] (Ἰτουραία; Itouraía). Region named after an Arab tribe, whose eponym Jeṭūr (Hebrew Yṭūr) was regarded as a son of  Ishmael (Gn 25,15; 1 Chr 1,31). In the early Hellenistic period, the tribe is referred to as living east of the Jordan (1 Chr 5,19; Eupolemus in Euseb. Praep. evang. 9,30). However, it settled in the area of the Antilebanon, on the plains of Massya (modern Beqaʿ), and in the Lebanon itself. Infamous for their brigandry (Cic. Phil. 2,112), the Ituraeans raided  Byblus and Beirut …


(238 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] God see  Amun Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) [German version] [2] Tribe Hebrew Bnē  Ammōn, collectively  Ammōn; Assyrian bīt Ammān; meaning uncertain. Name of a tribe and small state with main city Rabbath Bnē  Ammōn, Hellenistic  Philadelphia, today Ammān. Gen. 19,38 explains the autochthonous population aetiologically as descendants of Lot; Deut. 2,20 introduces the Samsummim fictively as prior inhabitants. According to 2 Sam. 11,1 and 12,26-31, the A. were compelled by David into …


(62 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] Road junction in the Jordan valley (Χωβα, Jdt 4,4; Χωβαι, Jdt 15,4), according to the Tabula Peutingeriana 12 miles from  Scythopolis and 12 miles away from  Archelais, but in view of the total distance between those two locations ( c. 50 miles) that cannot be the case and so it is unlocated. Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) Bibliography TIR/IP 105, s.v. C.


(519 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dead Sea (textual finds) | Hasmonaeans (Hebrew Yriḥō; Greek Ἱεριχώ, Ἱερικοῦς, Ἱεριχοῦς; Latin Hierichô, Hierikoûs, Hierichoûs; Arabian ar-Rīḥā; from western Semitic yrḥ, ‘moon’?). Oasis with a wealth of palms, famous for dates and balsam (Str. 16,2,41; Pomp. Trog. 3,2-3; Plin. HN 13,44; Jos. BI 1,138; 4,452-475; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,54; 15,96), 8 km west of the Jordan, 10 km north of the Dead Sea, 250 m below sea level, watered by the spring ʿAin as-Sulṭān on the nor…


(273 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Village on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem (Βηθανία; Bēthanía; Anānyā, Neh 11,32, or Bēt Aniyyā, ‘house of the poor’). Village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, 15 stades (John 11,18) or two miles (Eus. On. 58) from Jerusalem (ruins of settlement 5th cent. BC -- 14th cent. AD). Place where Jesus was anointed by the sinner (Mark 14,3; Matt. 26,6; John 12,1), home of Mary and Martha, and place where Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11,1), hence in late antiquity Lazarion, today al-āzarı̄ya, ‘Lazarus(village)’. A chamber tomb in a cliff s…


(2,389 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Caesar | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Legio | Limes | Mesopotamia | Natural catastrophes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Aegean Koine [German version] I. Name Hebrew Y rūšālēm, presumably ‘foundation of the (god) Šalēm’, in the Masoretic texts ( Masorah) always vocalized in the dual form Y rūšālayim; Greek Ἱερουσαλήμ, Ἰεροσόλυμα; Latin Ierusalem, [ H] ierosolyma), archaizing Šālēm (Gn 14:18; Ps 76:3) or Y bōs (Judg 19:10-11; 1 Chr 11:4-5), und…


(968 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Writer of the Justinian period (6th cent. AD) Writer of the Justinian period (6th cent. AD), a German, probably of Gothic descent, grandson of Paria (secretary to the Prince of the Alani Candac), son of Alanoviamuth. Probably born in the late 5th cent. AD, I. also served as secretary to Cantac's nephew Gunthigis (Iord. Get. 265). Following his conversio (from Arianism to Orthodoxy?, from a secular to a clerical position?), in Constantinople in 551 (Iord. Rom. 4. 363; cf. Iord. Get. 104) he was asked by a friend named Vigilius (unlik…


(724 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] A. Historical Development up to the 4th cent. ‘The Red One’ primarily refers to the mountain region east of the Wādı̄ al-Arabā, to its population only secondarily. Under Merenptah, a report emerged that the ‘Schasu ( Šśw) of E.’ were received in Egypt (ANET 259). Their settlement began in the 12th/11th cents. BC from the north and reached its peak in the 8th-6th cents. BC. The Esau-Jacob cycle (Gen. 25*, 27*, 32-33) demonstrates a special relationship to E., at least from an israelitic perspective. David achieved …


(449 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] (δάφνη; dáphnē). Used in antiquity as a name for the plant sacred to Apollo and Artemis ─ the  laurel Laurus nobilis L. of the Lauraceae family, not the Thymelaeacea genus of the daphne with which we are familiar today ( Cneorum). Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Nymph, transformed into a laurel tree (Δάφνη; Dáphnē). The chaste nymph D. devoted to  Artemis and who loved to hunt, was a daughter of the river god Ladon (or Peneius) and  Gaia. She fled from Apollo, who tried to force his affections on her, and tur…


(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …