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Sea Peoples, migration of

(1,904 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen)
[German version] I. Description The term 'Sea People' or 'Sea Peoples' originates from Egyptian royal inscriptions of the 19th and 20th Dynasties, where it is used as an addition to ethnonyms characterizing the tribal warrior-groups that, as sea-faring invaders 'from the middle of the sea' (or 'from the islands in the middle of the sea'), plagued Lower Egypt and the Egyptian sphere of influence in southern Syria from the beginning of the 14th until far into the 12th cent. BC. Among the groups of 'no…

Patrios Politeia

(296 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen)
[German version] (πάτριος πολιτεία/ pátrios politeía, 'Constitution of the Fathers'). Political slogan; in the Athens of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), enduring the pressure of stark polarizations and in view of military defeats, it was an incitement to a renunciation of 'radical' democracy. However, the political and historical paradigm for any return to the PP- Dracon [2] ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 4,2f.), Solon's eunomía, Cleisthenes [2] or the 'Rule of Areopagus' during the great Persian War ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 23,1 and Aristot. Pol. 5,1304a) - rema…


(713 words)

Author(s): Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen)
[German version] (ὀλιγαρχία/ oligarchía, 'rule by the few', 'minoriy rule'). General Greek term for a form of constitution in which political power or important governing powers are the entitlement of a socially or socio-politically qualified minority. The origin and use of the term oligarchia around 460 BC is closely connected with the distinction from the term dēmokratía (in contrast to the older description isonomía for a civil-constitutional order). Pindar's threefold classification (Pind. P. 2,86-88) of the forms of rule in the Greek world - tyrannís , ru…


(1,387 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκιβιάδης; Alkibiádēs). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of 6th cent. BC) Athenian, who in 510 BC supported  Cleisthenes when he initiated the expulsion of the Peisistratids from Athens (Isoc. Or. 16,26). [1; cf. 2]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 Traill, PAA, 121620. 2 Davies, 600,III u. V. [German version] [2] ‘the Elder’ Athenian, around 461 BC Son of the previous (cf. Pl. Euthd. 275a/b); after the deposition of  Cimon (462/1 BC) and the break between Athens and Sparta he laid down demonstratively the inherited title of a Lacedaimonian proxenos (Thuc. 5,43,2; 6,8…


(502 words)

Author(s): Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Lehmann, Gunnar (Jerusalem) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Ἐπιφάνεια; Epipháneia). [German version] [1] City in Cilicia Pedias City in Cilicia Pedias (Ptol. 5,8,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. E., 274 Meineke), previously Oeniandus (Plin. HN 5,93), renamed E. after  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes. Road station (Geogr. Rav. 2,16,93; [2. 766]). In AD 260, E. was captured by Šapur I [1. 312f.]. After the restructuring of the province in AD 408, E. was seen as one of the cities of Cilicia II (Hierocles, 705,5). Its ruins (well preserved theatre and aqueduct) are c. 8 km west of Erzin in Gözene/Gözcucler Harabeleri. Sayar, Mustafa H. (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. …