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Skovoroda, Hryhory

(261 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1722, Chornukhy, Poltava Oblast – 1794, Ivanivka, near Kharkiv), is considered the most important poet and mystic of the Ukrainian Baroque. From 1734 to 1753 (with interruptions) he studied at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy in Kiev (II). From 1745 to 1750 he pursued his interests in the Stoics, Plato, and Pietism in Europe. In his epistemology, he combined patristic influences with the Plato renaissance of his period. Between 1753 and 1769, he held various teaching pos…

Mohilev

(186 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] After the Union of Brest in 1596, Orthodox laity, supported by the church brotherhoods, opposed a union with Rome (Unions with Rome) and called for the restoration of the Eastern church hierarchy. The election of Vladislav IV (1632–1648) enabled the Orthodox nobility to obtain the decree for the “Establishment of peace for the Russian people of …

Rohoza, Mykhailo

(182 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Mikhail Ragoza; c. 1540? – 1599, Kiev?), metropolitan of Kiev and Halič. In Rohoza’s period in office, union with Rome (Unions with Rome) was agreed. He came from the lesser Ruthenian nobility, and appears in 1579 as archimandrite of the Monastery of the Ascension in Minsk. On his appointment in 1589, Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople had high hopes for the renewal of the church province of Kiev. At synods in Brest in 1590 and 1594 Rohoza worked for reforms within the churc…

Parish

(1,237 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth | Oswalt, Julia | Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Catholic…

Ostrog

(167 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (250 km northeast of Lviv [Lemberg], Ukraine), chosen seat of the Ruthenian Udel princes of Ostrog; from the mid-14th century steadily built up as a defensive fortress against Tartar attack. With the rise of the princes of Ostrog to the highest rank of the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic, Ostrog gained particular importance as a political and cultural center for the defence of Ruthenian interests, and the strengthening of the position of the Eastern Church in the process o…

Balaban, Gedeon

(116 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1530?–1607), Orthodox bishop of Lemberg (Ukrainian L'viv) from 1569. He opposed the introduction of the Gregorian calendar (1582). In 1590, he participated in unification negotiations (Unions, Church) with the Roman Catholic Church, but remained opposed to union following the conclusion of the Union of Brest in 156…

Przemysl

(178 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] Przemysl, on the River San on the Polish-Russian border, originally a staging place on the trade route from Regensburg to Kiev. In 1078 it became part of the principality of Halich. After Christianization, there is evidence of both Latin and Byzantine-Slavic congregations. The first mention of an Orthodox bishopric in Przemysl in a chronicle dates from 1220. After Przemysl was incorporated into the kingdom of Poland in 1344, a Latin bishopric was established in 1387. During the pr…

Mohilever, Samuel

(158 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1824, Glubokoye near Vilnius – Jun 9, 1898, Bialystok), scholar and rabbi. Even before the notorious Russian pogroms of 1881, he called for the return of the Jews to Palestine on the basis of an active settlement effort in the spirit of the Torah. With great organizational and propagandistic dedication, he set about reconciling the secular and orthodox elements within the emerging Chibbat Zion (Heb. “Love of Zion”), the Russian forerunner of the Zionist Organization (Zion…

Olga (Saint)

(184 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (in Scandinavian: Helga; after her baptism: Helena; c. 890–969, Kiev; feast day Jul 11), grand duchess of Kievan Rus. As duchess of Pskov from the Rjurikid dynasty, she became regent in Kievan Rus in 945, after the murder of her husband, Grand Duke Igor. Through the formation of tax districts she made a significant contribution to the strengthening of territorial power, which was also furthered by the increasing Chris-¶ tianization of the eastern Slavs. Olga herself received baptism in 955 or 957. Negotiations conducted in Constantinople in connect…

Bukharev, Aleksandr

(184 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1824–1871), one of the most prominent Orthodox theologians during the reform era of Tsar Alexander II, became a monk (religious name: Feodor) in 1846 and taught as professor of Bible and dogmatics at the Theological Academies of Moscow and Kazan. In 1848, he attracted public attention with his Three Letters to N.V. Gogol (N. Gogol), supporting the latter's embrace of the Orthodox tradition. In 1860, there appeared his controversial On Orthodo…

Philaret of Chernigov

(152 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Gumilevsky; Oct 23, 1805, Konobeev, Tambov, Russia – Aug 9, 1866, Konotop, Ukraine), archbishop of Chernigov; he founded the his-¶ toricist school of church history through intensive study of sources and historical-statistical descriptions. The most important works among …

Job of Pochaev, Saint

(202 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Ivan Železo; 1551, Polutʾja – 1651, Počaev, Volhynia), revered for preserving the ascetic tradition of the Eastern Church in Poland and Lithuania in the epoch of confessionalization. He became a priest and monk around 1580 and initially headed the monastery of the Exaltation of the Cross in Dubno. The limited number of writings which can be attributed to him consist primarily of citations from the church father…

White Russia

(901 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] White Russia or Belarus became independent in 1991, keeping the 1945 borders of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (see below). In the 17th century, the territory between the upper Neman and the middle Dnieper settled by East Slavic tribes was officially called Belorussia (Lat. Alba Russia). The element Rus’ indicates its relationship to the medieval Kievan Rus’ (Kiev, Russia), while bela (“white”) remains unexplained, despite many attempts. ¶ Shortly after the baptism of the Rus’ in 988, the eparchy of Polotsk was founded. In parallel with…

Catherine II,

(143 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] “the Great,” tsarina of Russia (1762–1796; born princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, Apr 21, 1729, ¶ Stettin, died Nov 6, 1796, Carskoe Selo); on her marriage to Peter III (1761–1762), she converted to the Orthodox Church. As a representative of an enlightened absolutism, she practiced religious tolerance so long as state interests were not affected. In the acquired territories of Poland, Courland, the Crimea, and the Black Sea region, both Christian and non-Christian faith co…

Alexander II, Tsar

(160 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1818, Moscow – Mar 1, 1881, St. Petersburg), Tsar of Russia (1855–1881). In domestic policy, the epoch of the “reform tsar” is rightly considered a turning-point. As the core of the reforms, the law abolishing serfdom was issued on Feb 19, 1861, the reform of the justice system, among other things, in 1864. Cultural institutions recei…

Brotherhoods

(2,906 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Dörfler-Dierken, Angelika | Oswalt, Julia | Daiber, Karl-Fritz
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Church History – III. Current Situation I. History of Religions Brotherhoods are a special form of community, not constituted by traditional forms of relationship (Covenant). They are mono-gendered groupings (also “sisterhoods”) distinguished by certain homogeneous characteristics. Initiation groups are often the origin of brotherhoods in cultural histo…

Golitsyn, Alexandr Nikolayevich

(181 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (Dec 19, 1773, Moscow – Dec 4, 1844, Feodosiya, Crimea) dictated the religious and educational policies of Russia during the reign of Alexander I. Appointed procurator general of the Senate in 1802 and procurator general of the Holy Synod in 1803, Gol…

Tikhon of Zadonsk, Saint

(293 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] (1724, Korotsk, Novgo­rod region – Aug 13, 1783, Zadonsk), one of the most important 18th-century Russian hierarchs. The son of a church sexton, he was baptized Timofey. He attended the seminary at the court of the bishop in Novgorod, and after being tonsured as a monk in 1758 he took the name Tikhon and served as the bishop’s prefect. In ¶ 1759 he was called to the seminary in Tver as professor of theology; soon he was made its rector. Consecrated “bishop of Keksholm and Ladoga” in 1761, he served as suffragan bishop of Novgorod. In 1763 b…

Pochaev Monastery

(186 words)

Author(s): Oswalt, Julia
[German Version] According to tradition, the Holy Dormition Pochaev Laura, 120 km east of Lviv (Ukraine), had its beginning when monks from Kiev, destroyed by the Mongols in 1240, settled on Mount Pochaev, where a footprint of the Theotokos is venerated. The earliest document of the monastery, from 1595, records a generous gift from Anna Goys-¶ kaya, a Volhynian noblewoman. The document forbids the takeover of the monastery by any other denomination. Thanks also to the veneration of St. Job of Pochaev, the monastery’s abbot, the monastery stayed in Orthodox hands longer than other monasteries in the region after the Union of Brest in 1596 (Unions with Rome). Not until 1721, after the Council of Zamość, did Uniate monks take over the monastery. The monks participated in the November Uprising, and Nicholas I ordered their removal to Russia and their replacement with monks from St. Petersbu…
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