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Īs̲h̲īk-Āḳāsī

(290 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Ṣafawid administrative term = “usher”. The is̲h̲īk-āḳāsis were minor court officiais who operated in two different branches of the administrative System, namely, the dīwān [ q.v.] and the ḥaram [ q.v.]. The officers in charge of the two sections were known as is̲h̲ik-āḳāsī-bās̲h̲ī -yi dīwān-i aʿlā , and īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī-bās̲h̲ī -yi ḥaram

Ḳi̊zi̊l-Bās̲h̲

(2,829 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(t. “Red-head”). The word is used in both a general and a specific sense. In general, it is used loosely to denote a wide variety of extremist S̲h̲īʿī sects [see g̲h̲ulāt ], which flourished in ¶ Anatolia and Kurdistān from the late 7th/13th century onwards, including such groups as the Alevis ( ʿAlawīs ; see A. S. Tritton, Islam: belief and practices, London 1951, 83). The ʿAlawīs were closely connected with the Nuṣayrīs [ q.v.] of northern Syria and Cicilia, and the tahtacis ( tak̲h̲tad̲j̲is [ q.v.]), in order to protect themselves from persecution by the Ottoman government as schismatics, later “gained the right of asylum under the all-embracing and tolerant umbrella of the Bektāshī organization” (J. Spencer Trimingham,

Ḏj̲angalī

(595 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a nationalist and reformist movement in Persia which came into be…

Asīr

(127 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Mīrzā Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Mīrzā Muʾmin, Persian poet and pupil of Faṣīḥī Harawī. Born at Iṣfahān: probable date of death 1049/1639-40, though some sources give later dates. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not migrate to the Mug̲h̲al court, but became a boon companion and close relative (…

Iʿtimād al-Dawla

(142 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, literally: “trusty support of the state”, a title of Persian wazīrs during the Ṣafawid period and subsequently. The title iʿtimād al-dawla does not occur during the reign of Ismaʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), and first appears towards the end of the reign of Ṭahmāsp I, ca. 976/1568-9 (see Tārīk̲h̲-i Īlčī-yi Niẓāms…

Asad Allāh Iṣfahānī

(109 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, celebrated Persian sword-maker ( s̲h̲ams̲h̲īrsāz ) of the time of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. It is said that the Ottoman Sultan presented a helmet to S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, and offered a sum of money to anyone who could cleave the helmet in two with a sword. Asad made a sword with which he achieved this feat, and, as a reward, S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās remitted the tax of the sword-makers, who continued to obtain exemption until Ḳād̲j̲ār times (see A. K. S. Lambton, Islamic Society in Persia , London 1954, 25). For a description of Asad Allāh’s work, see Survey of Persian Art , iii, 2575. (R.M. Savory)

K̲h̲urrams̲h̲ahr

(590 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town (population in 1966: 88,536) of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name (population in 1966: 156,281) in the Iranian province of K̲h̲ūzistān ( ustān 6), and situated in long. 48° 09′ E., lat. 30° 25′ N. Its elevation above sea-level is 8 m./26 ft., and the climate is hot and humid, with summer temperatures rising to 58° C./136° F., and a winter minimum of 8° C./46° F. The present town is the successor of a number of settlements which, since ancient times, have been located in the general area where the Kārūn (Dud̲j̲ayl)…

Ibrāhīm b. S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲

(176 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Abu ’l-Fatḥ Mīrzā Ibrāhīm Sulṭān Bahādur ), Tīmurid prince, second son of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ [ q.v.], born 28 S̲h̲awwāl 796/26 August 1394. In 812/1409, Ibrāhīm was appointed governor of Balk̲h̲ and Ṭuk̲h̲āristān up to the borders of Kābul and Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and in 817/1414 he was appointed governor of Fārs, a position which he held for over twenty years up to his death ¶ on 4 Shawwāl 838/3 May 1435. In 823-4/1420-1, and in 832/1429, he took part in S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲’s campaigns in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. In 824/1421 he annexed K̲h̲ūzistān to the Tīmūrid empire.…

K̲h̲urramābād

(264 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, chief town of the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the Iranian province of Luristān ( ustān 6), situated in long. 48° 21′ E., lat. 33° 29′ N.; population of the s̲h̲ahristān (1966): 259,000, elevation above sea-level: 4,700 feet. The town is first mentioned under its present name in the 8th/14th century by Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, who states: …

Ṣadr al-Dīn Ardabīlī

(324 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(S̲h̲aykh Ṣadr al-Milla wa ’l-Dīn Mūsā), second son of Ṣafī al-Dīn Ardabīlī [ q.v.], born 1 S̲h̲awwāl 704/26 April 1305 (S̲h̲aykh Ḥusayn b. Abdāl Zāhidī, Silsilat al-nasab-i Ṣafawiyya , Iranschähr Publications no. 6, Berlin 1924-5, 39). Designated by his father as his successor and vicegerent ( k̲h̲alīfa wa nāʾib-munāb ), Ṣadr al-Dīn assumed the leadership of the Ṣafawid Order in 735/1334. He expanded the Ṣafawid mausoleum complex at Ardabīl, adding rooms for private meditation ( k̲h̲alwat-k̲h̲āna ), a residence for Ḳurʾān-readers ( dār al-ḥuffāẓ ), and a room ( čīnī-k̲h̲āna

Ḥamza Mīrzā

(339 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, Ṣafawid prince, second son of Muḥammad K̲h̲udābanda, born ca. 973/1565-6. In 985/1577 S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl II ordered that Ḥamza Mīrzā be put to death at S̲h̲īrāz, together with his father and brother, Abū Ṭālib, but Ismaʿīl II was assassinated before the order could be carried out. After the accession of his weak and purblind father, as Sulṭan Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 985/February 1578, Ḥamza Mīrzā was made heir-apparent at the instance of his mother, Mahd-i ʿUlyā, who, until her murde…

Iskandar Beg al-s̲h̲ahīr bi-Muns̲h̲ī

(249 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born ca. 968/1560, died probably ca. 1042/1632, author of the Tārīk̲h̲-i ʿĀlam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī , one of the greatest works of Persian historiography. The muḳaddima , on the origins of the Ṣafawids and the reigns of Ismaʿīl I and Ṭahmāsp I, is followed by a detailed history of the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I. The bulk of the work ( Ṣaḥīfas I and II, or, according to another reckoning, Ṣaḥīfa I and Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad i) was completed in 1025/1616. A later portion, variously termed Ṣaḥīfa III, or Ṣaḥīfa II, Maḳṣad ii, was completed in 1038/1629, the year of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās’s death. In the same year, Iskandar Beg, at the age of seventy, commenced a history of S̲h̲āh Ṣafī, but probably only the first four years of this chronicle are the work of Iskandar Beg. For a discussion on the authorship of this so-called D̲h̲ayl-i Tārīk̲h̲-i ʿĀlam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī , see Storey, i/I, pp. 312-14, and V. Minorsky’s observations in BSOAS, x (1940-2), 540-1. Iskandar Beg began his profession al career as an accountant, but soon abandoned accountancy for ins̲h̲āʾ . He obtained an appointment in the royal secretariat ¶ and rose rapidly to the rank of

K̲h̲ōī

(352 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
K̲h̲ūy , Iranian town (population in 1951: 49,000), situated in long. 45° 02′ E., lat. 38° 32′ N., in the s̲h̲ahristān of the same name in the ustān of West Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān; the Kurdish district of Quṭūr is included in the s̲h̲ahristān of K̲h̲ōī. The town lies at an elevation of 1040 m./3,444 ft., in a plain known locally as K̲h̲ōī čukūri̊ (“the K̲h̲ōī depression”), because all the surrounding areas are at a higher elevation. The mountains surrounding the K̲h̲ōī plain protect the city from the cold winter winds (the Harāwīl range along the Turkish frontier to the north-west averages over 11,000 feet), and consequently K̲h̲ōī has a warmer climate…

Ḳūrčī

(463 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
(from the Mongolian ḳorči , “an archer”, from ḳor , “quiver”; Tad̲h̲kirat al-mulūk , translated and explained by V. Minorsky, London 1943, 32, ¶ n. 2), a military term with a variety of different meanings: “he who bears arms, the sword, chief huntsman” (Pavet de Courteille, Dict . turc , or., 425; “armourer, sword-cutler, troop of cavalry, captain of the watch; leader of a patrol, commandant of a fort, gendarmerie in charge of a city’s security” (Sulaymān Buk̲h̲ārī, Lug̲h̲at-i Čag̲h̲atāy ve Türkī ʿOt̲h̲mānī , Istanbul 1298/1880-1, 233), “sentry, sentinel, guard, inspector” (Vambery, Ča…

Ḳāsim-i Anwār

(898 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the laḳab of muʿīn al-dīn ʿalī ḥusaynī sarābī tabrīzī , mystic, poet and leading Ṣafawid dāʿi . Born in 757/1356 in the Sarāb district of Tabrīz in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī became at an early age the disciple ( murīd ) of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Ṣafawid ṭarīḳa Ṣadr al-Dīn Mūsā [ q.v.], who bestowed on him the laḳab of Ḳāsim-i Anwār, “Distributor of Lights”, as the result of a vision experienced by his disciple. Muʿīn al-Dīn ʿAlī saw himself standing in the Masd̲j̲id-i D̲j̲āmiʿ at Ardabīl, holding in his hand a great candle from which the memb…

Faraḥābād

(464 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, the name of a place in Māzandarān, situated 36° 50′ N., 53° 2′ 38″ E., 17 m. north of Sārī and 26 m. north-west of As̲h̲raf [ q.v.], near the mouth of the Tid̲j̲in (or Tīd̲j̲ān, or Tid̲j̲īna) river. Formerly known as Ṭāhān, the site was renamed Faraḥābād by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I, who in 1020/1611-2 or 1021/1612-3 ordered the construction of a royal palace there. Around the palace were built residences, gardens, baths, bazaars, mosques and caravanserais. The new town, according to Pietro della Valle, was peopled by S̲h̲āh ʿAbbā…

Ismāʿīl II

(641 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, born 940/1533-4 (this is conjectured from the available evidence; 110 chronicle gives his date of birth), died 13 Ramaḍān 985/24 November 1577, second son of S̲h̲āh Ṭahmāsp [ q.v.], shah of Persia (984-5/1576-7) of the Ṣafawid dynasty. After the rebellion of his uncle Alḳāṣ [ q.v.], Ismāʿīl was appointed governor of S̲h̲īrwān (954/1547), and conducted several successful campaigns against the Ottomans in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. In 962/1555 he married a daughter of the marriage between a sister of Ṭahmāsp and S̲h̲āh Niʿmat Allāh Walī [ q.v.]. The following year, in S̲h̲a…

ʿAbbās I

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
, styled the Great, king of Persia of the Ṣafawī dynasty, second son and successor of Muḥammad Ḵh̲udābanda, was born on 1 Ramaḍān 978/27 January 1571, and died in Māzandarān on 24 Ḏj̲umāḍā I 1038/19 January 1629, after a reign of 42 solar (43 lunar) years. In 980/1572-3 he remained at Harāt when his father moved to S̲h̲īrāz. In 984/1576-7 Ismāʿīl II put to death the lala (tutor) of ʿAbbās, and appointed ʿAlī Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān S̲h̲āmlū governor of Harāt with orders to execute ʿAbbās himself. ʿAlī Ḳulī procrastinated, and, when the death of Ismāʿī…

Čūbānids

(830 words)

Author(s): Savory, R.M.
( Čobanids ), a family of Mongol amīr s claiming descent from a certain Sūrg̲h̲ān ¶ S̲h̲īra of the Suldūz tribe who had once saved the I life of Čingiz Ḵh̲ān. The most notable members of this family were: (1) Amīr Čūbān . An able and experienced military commander, Amīr Čūbān, according to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, fought his first battle in Rabīʿ II 688/April-May 1289 ( Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda (GMS), 588); thereafter he served with distinction under the Ilk̲h̲āns Arg̲h̲ūn, Gayk̲h̲ātū, G̲h̲āzān and Uld̲j̲āytū [ qq.v.]. He was appointed amīr al-umarāʾ by Abū Saʿīd in 717/…
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