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Vosegus

(335 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] The uplands which extend over some 200 km in eastern France (Caes. B Gall. 4,10; Luc. 1,397; Plin. HN 16,197; Vibius Sequester 145,16 Riese; Vosagus: Tab. Peut. 3,2-4; Ven. Fort. 7,4; Greg. Tur. Franc. 10,10), modern Vosges Mountains, form in the east the western edge of the Upper Rhine lowlands and in the west cross into the Lorraine plateau and the Monts Faucilles, in the north continue in the Palatinate Forest and in the south descend towards the Burgundy …

Turnacum

(393 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Modern Tournai/Doornik in the Belgian province of Hainault. Gallo-Roman vicus on both banks of the Scaldis (Scheldt) in the border region between the Menapii and Nervii, a node on the route from Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-mer) to Bagacum (modern Bavai: Tab. Peut. 2,3;  It. Ant. 367,7), from which roads lead to Castellum (modern Cassel; It. Ant. 377,5) and Tervanna (ibid. 378,11). There is evidence of traces of settlement as early as the Iron Age, the Gallo-Roman presence i…

Sequana

(426 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοάνας/ Sēkoánas, Σηκουανός/ Sēkouanós), modern Seine. River in Gallia (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,2; Mela 3,2,20; Plin. HN 4,105; 109; Amm. Marc. 15,11,3; Str. 4,1,14; 3,2-5; 4,1; 5,2; Ptol. 2,8,2; 9,1; Cass. Dio 40,38,4) rising - contrary to Str. 4,3,2 - not in the Alps but on the plateau of La…

Virodunum

(233 words)

Nasium

(249 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] City of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 365,3; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Νάσιον/ Násion, Ptol. 2,9,13) between the rivers Mosella and Matrona [2] in the region of the present-day communities of Naix-aux-Forge and Saint-Amand-sur-Ornain. The Gallo-Roman city, located in the Ornain valley, succeeded a Celtic oppidum (52 ha) situated on the neighbouring hill of Boviolles. N. is located on the military road leading from Durocortorum to Tullum and Divodurum (Tab. Peut. l.c.; It. Ant. l.c.), but its importance in transportation is primarily regional, with five additional roads branching out from the city. Excavations, mainly during the 19th cent., produced a wide variety of archeological evidence: thermae, two temples, amphitheatres, aqueducts, private homes, representational art [1] and inscriptions (CIL XIII 4630-4644), as well as small-scale finds (mostly jewellery and coins). The settled portion extended over an oval area measuring some 65 ha, with a densely built-up centre of 12 ha. It is unlikely that settlement began before the middle of the 2nd cent. BC. During the 7th cent. AD F…

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Dubis

(40 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia, modern Doubs, rises in the French Jura, crosses the territory of the Sequani and flows into the  Arar at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (Caes. B Gall. 1,38; Str. 4,1,11; 14; 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,10,3). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Triboci

(256 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Lower Alsace, who arrived in Gaul with Ariovistus in 58 BC and settled among the Mediomatrici around Brocomagus (modern Brumath) and Haguenau [1]. Their neighbours to the north were the Nemetes, to the west the Mediomatrici, to the south or southwest the Rauraci and the Leuci. When the T. became settled is unclear. The depictions in Caes. B Gall. 4,10 and  Str. 4,3,4 (Τρίβοκχοι/

Vertunum

(374 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus, name only mediaeval, in the western part of the civitas Treverorum (Belgium, province of Luxemburg, Treveri), at the point where the Rivers Ton and Vire meet. V. developed as a centre on the right bank of the Ton, which gradually rises to a height of 20 m (modern Vieux-Virton) and ultimately merges into the Majeroux plateau; also on the left side in the narrow floor of the Vire valley, where a trade quarter (modern Saint-Mard) developed. V. lay on an old, presumably pre-Roman, ro…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron…

Helellum

(170 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Tab. Peut. 3,4; Alaia, Geogr. Rav. 26). Roman vicus of the Triboci in Upper Alsace (not identical to  Helvetum) on the Argentovaria-Argentoratum route at the crossing of the Ill near modern Ehl-Benfeld, Département Bas-Rhin [1]; a late La Tène period settlement was followed in the late Augustan period by the Gallo-Roman vicus that ultimately developed

Suessiones

(164 words)

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vo…

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Dalheim

(167 words)

Vesontio

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum | Rome (Vesontine, Bisontii, Besantio, Οὐεσόντιον/ Ouesóntion, modern Besançon, Dép. du Doubs), civitas metropolis of the Sequani. [German version] I. Beginnings Thanks to its outstanding topographical location (Caes. B Gall. 1,38,4; Julian. Ep. 26; Ptol. 2,9,21) in an almost circular oxbow of the Dubis (modern Doubs; radius 600 m), with the isthmus blocked in the southeast by a natural rise (Colline de la Citadelle), the site was settled from the early Bronze Age on. The special strategic significance of V. was shown in the Gallic War, when Caesar succeeded in occupying V. ahead of Ariovistus, shortly after the beginning of the war in 58 BC (Caes. B Gall. 1,38 f.; cf. Cass. Dio 38,34). A late La Tène period settlement could be demonstrated on the western and northern shores of the river bend. The area was separated from the other section of the loop by a ditch (thalweg), where the settlement was not established before the 1st half of the 1st cent…

Atrebates

(287 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] People in Gallia Belgica People in Gallia Belgica, Artois region (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5), settled in the catchment area of the Scarpe, especially in the area around Nemetacum. After their subjection together with the ne…

Noviodunum

(998 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Walser, Gerold (Basle)
[German version] [1] Capital of the Suessiones This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Oppidum Capital of the Suessiones, occupied by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,12). N. can be identified with the oppidum of Pommiers (west of Soisson, De partement of Aisne). This was abandoned at the latest under Augustus, by about 50 BC a new one had come into being in the plain near Villeneuve-Saint-Germain [1; 2]. With the founding of the Gallo-Roman capital civitas of Augusta Suessionum in about 20 BC other settlement came to an end. Schön, Franz (Regens…

Divodurum

(311 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Limes | Batavian Revolt The chief town of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Mediomatrici, now Metz, on a long ridge between the Moselle and the Seille before their confluence (Ptol. 2,9,7). A Hallstatt

Tullum

(184 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τούλλιον/ Toúllion). Civitas capital of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica on the left bank of the Moselle River (Mosella) on an elevation surrounded by branches of the Ingressin brook, before its confluence with the Moselle; modern Toul ( département of Meurthe et Moselle). An important hub for water and land routes (It. Ant. 365,4; 385,10; AE 1975, 634). Despite good geographical conditions for transport, T. was overshadowed by other cities and civitas capitals. Only in the 5th cent. was it of particular significance (Notitia Galliarum 5,4; Geogr. Rav 4,26). Apart from the c…
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