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Turkistān

(3,023 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Poujol, Catherine
, Turkestan , a Persian term meaning “land of the Turks”. 1. As a designation for the Central Asian lands to the north of modern Persia and Afg̲h̲ānistān. This roughly corresponded to the older Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-nahr [ q.v.] and the steppe lands to its north, although these last were from Mongol times onwards (sc. the 13th century) often distinguished as Mog̲h̲olistān [ q.v.]. To the Persians, of course, only the southern frontier of the land of the Turks, the frontier against Īrān, was of importance and this frontier naturally depended on political conditions. On ¶ their very firs…

Alp Takīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Cahen, Cl.
(alp tigin), the founder of the G̲h̲aznawid power. Like the majority of the praetorians of his time, he was a Turkish slave, purchased and enrolled in the Sāmānid body guard, who progressively rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb (commander-in-chief of the guard). In this capacity he wielded the real power during the reign of the young Sāmānid ʿAbd al-Malik I; the vizier Abū ʿAlī al-Balʿamī owed his appointment to him, and did not dare to take any action "without the knowledge and advice" of Alp Takīn. …

Ḥaydar Mīrzā

(676 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(his real name was Muḥammad Ḥaydar; as he himself says, he was known as Mīrzā Ḥaydar; Bābur calls him Ḥaydar Mīrzā), a Persian historian, author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī , born in 905/1499-1500, died in 958/1551 (for his descent see dūg̲h̲lāt ); through his mother he was a grandson of the Čag̲h̲atāy K̲h̲ān Yūnus and a cousin of Bābur. Most of our knowledge of his life is gleaned from his own work; Bābur (ed. Beveridge, p. 11) devotes a few lines to him; the Indian historians Abu ’l-Faḍl and Firis̲h̲ta give some information about his later years. After the assassination of his father (91…

Balk̲h̲as̲h̲

(411 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A.
, after the Aral [ q.v.], the largest inland lake of Central Asia (18,432 sq. km.), into which the Ili and several other less important rivers flow. The lake’s existence was unknown to the Arab geographers of the Middle Ages. The anonymous author of the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (372/982-983; comp. J. Marquart, Osteuropäische und ostasiatische Streifzüge , xxx, makes the Ili (Īlā) flow into the Issi̊ḳ-Ḳul. Of all the Muslim authors, Muḥammad Ḥaydar is the only one, to our knowledge, who, towards the middle of the 10th/16th century ( Taʾrik̲h̲-i Ras̲h̲īdī , trans. by E. D. …

Ḳarapapak̲h̲

(276 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Wixman, R.
(Turkish, “black hat”), a Turkic people whose language belongs to the western Og̲h̲uz division, and differs little from Āzerī and the Turkish of Turkey. In the Georgian S.S.R. it is often confused with Āzerī, and in Turkey itself Ḳarapapak̲h̲ is no longer spoken (having been replaced by Turkish). In 1828, the Ḳarapapak̲h̲ emigrated from the region along the Debeda or Borčala river in eastern Georgia partly to the region of Ḳars (where they formed about 15% of the population) and partly to the Su…

Atsi̊̊z b. Muḥammad b. Anūs̲h̲tigin

(634 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh [ q.v.] from 521-2/1127-8 to 551/1156, b. around 1098, followed his father as vassal of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Sand̲j̲ar in 521/1127 or 522/1128. All through his life it was his desire to make himself independent of this ruler, to maintain his position also with respect to the newly founded might of the Ḳara Ḵh̲iṭāy and to bring under his domain the districts in the north which in earlier centuries had been temporarily connected with the Ḵh̲w ārizm state in order thus to achieve an expansion of it. In effect he was able (according to …

Ṭuk̲h̲āristān

(1,725 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name found in earlier mediaeval Islamic sources for the region along the southern banks of the middle and upper Oxus river, in the wider sense of the term (see below), with the ancient of the Balk̲h̲ as the centre of its western part and such towns as Ṭālaḳān, Andarāb and Walwālīd̲j̲ [ q.vv.] as its centres in the narrower acceptation of the term, sc. the eastern part. It comprised in its wider sense the modern Afg̲h̲an provinces of Fāryāb, D̲j̲ūzd̲j̲ān, Balk̲h̲, Sanangān, Ḳunduz, Tak̲h̲ār and Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān. The name of the region obviously preserves a memory of the people k…

Baydu

(287 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, the fifth in succession of the Mongol Il-Ḵh̲āns of Persia and a grandson of Hülegü, the founder of the dynasty. He reigned only for a few months since Gayk̲h̲atu, his predecessor, was strangled on Thursday 6 D̲j̲umādā II/21 April 1295 and he himself was put to death on Wednesday 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda/5 October of the same year. Insulted by Gayk̲h̲atu, this young and apparently unimportant prince had become involved in a conspiracy of the Mongol amīrs against the Il-Ḵh̲ān whic…

Ḳumuḳ

(2,345 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Kermani, David K.
(variant: Ḳumiḳ) a people of the eastern Caucasus. The Ḳumuḳs belong to the Ḳipčaḳ Turkic ethnic group, along with the Nog̲h̲ay, Karačay and Balkar. They live north of the main chain of the Great Caucasus, on the northern, north-eastern and eastern slopes of the Dāg̲h̲istānian Caucasus between the foothills and the Caspian Sea, from Derbend to Adz̲h̲i-Su (near the lower Terek River). Although confined to a narrow strip of land in the south, they inhabit a wider area near the Terek in the north. The Ḳumuḳs are bordered by the Nog̲h̲ays in the north, the Avars [ q.v.] and Darg̲h̲ins [ q.v.] in th…

Mazār-i S̲h̲arīf

(626 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, situated in lat. 36° 42′ N. and long. 67° 06′ E., at an altitude of 1,235 feet/380 m. in the foothills of the northern outliers of the Hindū-Kus̲h̲ [ q.v.]. The great classical and mediaeval Islamic town of Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.], modern Wazīrābād, lay some 14 miles/20 km. to the west of Mazār-i S̲h̲arīf, and until the Tīmūrid period was the most important urban centre of the region. Previously to that time, the later Mazār-i S̲h̲arīf was marked by the village of Ḵh̲ayr, later called Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a Ḵh̲ayrān. On two d…

Ānī

(1,773 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Minorsky, V.
, ancient Armenian capital, whose ruins lie on the right bank of the Arpa-Čay (called by the Armenians Ak̲h̲uryan) at about 20 miles from the point where that river joins the Araxes. A suggestion has been made that the town may owe its name to a temple of the Iranian goddess Anāhita (the Greek Anaďtis). The site was inhabited in the pre-Christian period, for pagan tombs have been found in the immediate vicinity of the town. As a fortress Ānī is mentioned as early as the 5th century A.D. Its foun…

Dāg̲h̲istān

(4,740 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A.
“land of the mountains”; this name is an unusual linguistic phenomenon, since it consists of the Turkish word dāg̲h̲ , mountain, and of the suffix which, in the Persian language, distinguishes the names of countries; this name seems to have appeared for the first time in the 10th/16th century). An autonomous Republic of the R.S.F.S.R. with an area of 19,500 sq. miles and a population of 958,000 inhabitants (1956), it is made up of two quite distinct parts: the Caucasian Range and the cis-Casp…

Ḳi̊rgi̊z

(2,312 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Hazai, G.
, a Turkish people, mentioned as early as the oldest Chinese accounts of Central Asia (from the 2nd century A.D.) under the name Kien-Kuen, which according to P. Pelliot ( JA, Ser. 2, vol. xv, 137) goes back to a Mongol word, singular ḳirḳun . The lands of the Kirgiz are not exactly defined in these sources; according to a very reliable source, the land of the Kien-Kuen lay north-west of the land of the K’ang-Kiu, i.e. of Sogdiana. The name Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z first appears in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions of the 8th century; at…

Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar

(1,013 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, a town in Chinese Turkestān (Sin Kiang); the same name is still used in Chinese official documents. The name Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar first appears in Chinese transcription (Kʾiu-cha) in the Tʾang-s̲h̲u ; cf. E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Tou-Kiue ( Turcs ) occidentaux , St. Petersburg 1903, 121 f. On the pre-Islamic Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar and the ruins of Buddhist buildings in the vicinity, see A. Stein, Ancient Khotan , Oxford 1907, i, 52 f.; idem, Serindia , Oxford 1921, 80 f. Arab armies did not reach Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar; the story of Ḳutayba’s campaign in 96/715 is, as shown by H. A. R. Gibb in BSOS, ii (1923), 46…

al-Barāmika

(3,746 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Sourdel, D.
or āl barmak (Barmakids), an Iranian family of secretaries and wazīrs of the early ʿAbbāsid Caliphs. 1. Origins. The name Barmak , traditionally borne by the ancestor of the family, was not a propei name, according to certain Arab authors, but a word designating the office of hereditary high priest of the temple of Nawbahār, near Balk̲h̲. This interpretation is confirmed by the etymology which is now accepted, deriving the term from the Sanskrit word parmak — “superior, chief. The term Nawbahār, moreover, likewise derives from Sanskrit ( nōva vihāra —”new monast…

Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ḳum

(373 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
(t. “Red sand”), a desert between the Si̊r-Daryā and Āmū-Daryā rivers [ qq. v., and also ḳarā-ḳum ], falling within the modern Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan SSRs. The country is less uniform, especially in the central part, than in the Ḳarā-Ḳum; the sand desert is crossed by several ranges of hills, and in some places is rocky. The Ḳi̊zi̊l-Ḳum ¶ becomes more and more inhospitable as one goes southwards. The region called Adam-Ḳi̊zi̊lg̲h̲an (“where man perishes”) between the Āmū-Daryā and the cultivated region of Buk̲h̲ārā, consisting of sandhills ( bark̲h̲ān ), is …

S̲h̲īrwān

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲irwān or S̲h̲arwān , a region of eastern Caucasia, known by this name in both mediaeval Islamic and modern times. S̲h̲īrwān proper comprised the easternmost spurs of the Caucasus range and the lands which sloped down from these mountains to the banks of the Kur river [ q.v.]. But its rulers strove continuously to control also the western shores of the Caspian Sea from Ḳuba (the modern town of Kuba) in the district of Maskat (< *Maskut, Mas̲h̲kut, to be connected with the ancient Eurasian steppe people of the Massagetes) in the north, to Bākū [ q.v.] (modern Baku) in the south. To the …

Si̊r Daryā

(2,001 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Poujol, C.
, conventional form Syr Darya, a river of Central Asia and the largest in that region. The Turkish element in the name, si̊r , is not actually found before the 10th/16th century; in the following century, the K̲h̲īwan ruler and historian Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī Bahādur K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] calls the Aral Sea “the Sea of Sir” (Si̊r Teñizi). 1. In the early and mediaeval periods. The Si̊r Daryā flows through the present republics of Kirgizia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan down from the northwestern slopes of the Tien Shan Mountains to the Aral Sea [ q.v.]. It is formed by the confluence in the e…

Baraba

(797 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A.
, steppe of Western Siberia, situated in the oblast ’ of Novosibirsk of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic, between lat. 54° and 57° North, and bounded on the East and West by the ranges of hills which skirt the banks of the Irti̊s̲h̲ and the Ob’. This steppe, which extends for 117,000 sq. km., has numerous lakes, most of which are sait; the biggest is Lake Čani̊. The ground, which is partly marshland, also has some fertile zones, but it is essentially a cattle-rearing region. It has a cold continental climate. The population (over 500,000 inhabitants in 1949) is unequally d…

Ḳaraḳalpaḳ

(724 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Wixman, R.
(Turkic “black hat”), a Turkic people of Central Asia. In the Russian annals, a people of this name (Černiye Klobutsi) is mentioned as early as the 12th century A.D.; but whether these “black hats” are identical with the modern Ḳaraḳalpaḳ cannot be definitely ascertained. It is not until the end of the 11th/17th century that there are records of the Ḳaraḳalpaḳ, in Central Asia. According to the embassy report of Skibin and Tros̲h̲in (1694), they then lived on the Si̊r Daryā, 10 days’ journey bel…

Manṣūr b. Nūḥ

(508 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, the name of two amīr s of the Sāmānid dynasty of Tranoxania and K̲h̲urāsān. 1. Manṣūr b. Nūḥ I, Abū Ṣaliḥ, ruler of K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania (350-65/961-76), succeeded his brother ʿAbd al-Malik b. Nūḥ I. Ibn Ḥawḳal is able ¶ to describe the internal conditions of the Sāmānid kingdom under Manṣūr as an eye-witness; cf. especially BGA, ii, 341: fī waḳtinā hād̲h̲ā ; 344 on the character of Manṣūr “the justest king among our contemporaries, in spite of his physical weakness and the slightness of his frame”. On the vizier Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad Balʿamī, see balʿamī , where a…

Gand̲j̲a

(976 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
Arab. d̲j̲anza , the former Elizavetpol , now Kirovabad , the second largest town in the Azerbaijan S.S.R. ¶ The town was first founded under Arab rule, in 245/859 according to the Ta’rīk̲h̲ Bāb al-abwāb (V. Minorsky,A History of Sharvān and Darband , Cambridge 1958, 25 and 57). It is not mentioned by the oldest Arabic geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih and Yaʿḳūbī; it seems to have taken its name from the pre-Muslim capital of Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān (now the ruins of Tak̲h̲t-i-Sulaymān). Iṣṭak̲h̲rī. 187 and 193, mentions Gand̲j̲a only as a small town on the road from Bard̲h̲aʿa [ q.v.] to Tif…

S̲h̲īrwān S̲h̲āh

(2,028 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲arwān S̲h̲āh , the title in mediaeval Islamic times of the rulers of S̲h̲īrwān [ q.v.] in eastern Transcaucasia. The title very probably dates back to pre-Islamic times. Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 17-18, mentions the S̲h̲īrwān S̲h̲āh as one of the local rulers who received his title from the Sāsānid emperor Ardas̲h̲īr. Al-Balād̲h̲urī mentions the S̲h̲īrwān S̲h̲āh, together with an adjacent potentate, the Layzān S̲h̲āh, as amongst those encountered by the first Arab raiders into the region; he further records that…

Tubbat

(4,701 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Gaborieau, M.
, Tibbat , Tibat , the most frequent vocalisations in the medieval Islamic sources for the consonant ductus T.b.t denoting the Inner Asian land of Tibet (with Tubbat , e.g. in Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 10, also preferred by Minorsky in his Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 92-3, and his edition and tr. of Marwazī, see below). The origin of the name has recently been examined by L. Bazin and J. Hamilton in a very detailed and erudite study, L’origine du nom Tibet , in Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde , xxvi [1991], 244-62, repr. in Bazin, Les Turcs , des mots, des hommes, Paris 1994. They…

Čelebī

(528 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
There has been no satisfactory explanation of the origin of the word. The following have been suggested: 1) as late as the 7th/13th (!) century, borrowed by the Nestorian Mission from the Syrian ṣělībhā ‘cross’, which was subsequently taken to mean a worshipper of the crucifix (Aḥmed Wefīk Pas̲h̲a, Lehd̲j̲e , loc. cit.); the same, thoug̲h taken over considerably earlier: Viktor, Baron Rosen in Zapiski Vost. Otd. v, 305 ff.; xi, 310 ff.; with additional source references also found in P. Melioranskiy, Zapiski Vost. Otd. xv, 1904, 036 ff.; cf. also Menges, as in the bibliography;…

Tirmid̲h̲

(1,924 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a town on the north bank of the Oxus river [see āmū daryā ] near the mouth of its tributary, the Surk̲h̲ān river (lat. 37° 15’ N., long. 67° 15’ E.), now the town of Termez in the southernmost part of the Uzbekistan Republic. As Samʿānī, who spent 12 days there, testifies, the name was pronounced Tarmīd̲h̲ in the town itself ( K. al-Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābad, iii, 41) which is confirmed by the Chinese Ta-mi (e.g. Hüan Tsang, tr. St. Julien, Mémoires sur les contrées occidentales, i, 25). Russian officers in 1889 also heard the pronunciation Termiz or Tarmi̊z ( Sbornik materialov po Azii

Kas̲h̲

(667 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, the modern s̲h̲ahr-i sabz (“green town”) on account of the fertility of its surroundings), a town in Özbekistān on what was once the great trade route between Samarḳand and Balk̲h̲. According to Chinese authorities, Kas̲h̲ (Chinese transcription Kʾia-s̲h̲a or Kié-s̲h̲uang-na, also Kʾius̲h̲a, as a town Ki-s̲h̲e) was founded at the beginning of the seventh century A.D.; cf. J. Marquart, Chronologie der alttürkischen Inschriften , Leipzig 1898, 57; Ērānšahr etc., Berlin 1901, 304; E. Chavannes, Documents sur les Toukiue ( Turcs ) occidentaux , St. Petersbu…

Bāysong̲h̲or

(187 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, second son of Sulṭān Maḥmūd of Samarḳand, grandson of Sulṭān Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.], born in the year 882/1477-8, killed on 10 Muḥarram 905/17 Aug. 1493. In the lifetime of his father he was prince of Buk̲h̲ārā; on the death of the latter in Rabīʿ II 900/30 Dec. 1494/27 Jan. 1495, he was summoned to Samarḳand. In 901/1495-6, he was deposed for a brief period by his brother Sulṭān ʿAlī and in 903, towards the end of Rabīʿ I November 1497, finally overthrown by his cousin Bābur. Bāysong̲h̲or then betook himself to…

Sārt

(1,473 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Subtelny, M.E.
, a term found in the history and ethnography of the Persian and Central Asian worlds. Originally an old Turkic word for “merchant”, it occurs with this meaning in the 11th-century sources, such as Maḥmūd al-Kāshg̲h̲arī’s encyclopaedic dictionary Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Turk ( Compendium of the Turkic dialects, tr. R. Dankoff and J. Kelly, 3 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1982-5, i, 269), and the ¶ Ḳarak̲h̲ānid mirror for princes, Ḳutadgu bilig by Yūsuf K̲h̲āṣṣ Ḥād̲j̲ib (ed. R.R. Arat, Istanbul 1947, i, 571). For references to other editions of both works, see Drevnetyurkskiy slovar’, Leningrad …

Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān

(3,687 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A. | Carrère-d'Encausse, H.
, also frequently written bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ān and sometimes in the literary language (with the Arabic plural inflection) badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānāt , a mountainous region situated on the left bank of the upper reaches of the Āmū-Daryā or more accurately of the Pand̲j̲, the source of this great river; the adjective derived from this noun is Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ānī or Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ī . J. Marquart ( Erāns̲h̲ahr , 279) gives this name the meaning of “region of Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲h̲ or Balak̲h̲s̲h̲, a type of ruby, which, it is said, is only found in Bad̲h̲ak̲h̲s̲…

Alān

(624 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Minorsky, V.
(in Arabic usually taken as al-lān ), an Iranian people (Alān < Aryan) of Northern Caucasus, formerly attested also east of the Caspian sea (see al-Bīrūnī, Taḥdīd al-Amākin , ed. A. Z. Validi, in Bīrūnī’s Picture of the world, 57), as supported by local toponymy. The Alān are mentioned in history from the 1st century A.D. In 371 they were defeated by the Huns. Together with the Vandals, a part of the Alāns migrated to the West across France and Spain, and finally took part in the creation of the Vandal kingdom in North Africa (418-5…

Ḳaraḳorum

(506 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, a town in the aymak of Övör K̲h̲angay in Central Mongolia, now in ruins; in the 7th/13th century it was for a short time the capital of the Mongol World Empire. The fullest accounts of the town are given by the European traveller William of Rubruck and the Persian historian D̲j̲uwaynī [ q.v.]. The ruins were first discovered in 1889 by N. M. Yadrentsey; they were visited and described by the members of the Russian expedition of 1891 led by Radlov; and in 1948-49 an expedition jointly organized by the Soviet Union and the Mongolian People’s Repub…

Burṭās

(735 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Quelquejay, Ch.
, or burdas (in al-Bakrī furdās ), pagan tribe of the Volga basin. For an account of the Burṭās and their neighbours the Ḵh̲azars and the Bulg̲h̲ārs, to the north and south, see bulg̲h̲ār . Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , ii, 14 & Tanbīh , 62) lists Burṭās also as a river flowing into the Itil (Volga); Marquart identifies this stream with Samara ( Streifzüge , 336). The sources do not mention any adherents to Islam among the Burṭās, which contrasts with their accounts of the Ḵh̲azars and Bulg̲h̲ārs. Yāḳūt’s report on the Burṭās (i, 567) is base…

K̲h̲azar

(10,496 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Golden, P.B.
, a nomadic people in the South Russian steppes who flourished in the early Islamic period. The K̲h̲azar tribal union emerged in the course of the 6th century A.D. in the aftermath of a series of migrations of nomadic peoples from Inner and Central Asia. With the collapse of the European Hun state in 454 A.D., some of the nomadic elements of Attila’s horde withdrew to the Pontic steppe zone. They were joined here, ca. 463 A.D., by waves of Og̲h̲ur tribes which had been driven from Western Siberia and the Kazak̲h̲ steppe by the Sabirs who, in turn, had been forced to m…

Tas̲h̲kent

(3,788 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Poujol, Catherine
, usually written Tās̲h̲kend or Tas̲h̲kend in Arabic and Persian manuscripts, a large town in Central Asia, in the oasis of the Čirčik, watered by one of the right bank tributaries of the Si̊r Daryā [ q.v.] or Jaxartes now, since the break-up of the USSR, in the Uzbekistan Republic (lat. 41° 16’ N., long. 69° 13’ E.). 1. History till 1865. Nothing is known of the origin of the settlement on the Čirčik. According to the Greek and Roman sources, there were only nomads on the other side of the Jaxartes. In the earliest Chinese sources (from the 2nd century B.…

Terek

(393 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a large river of the northeastern Caucasus region (length 600 km/373 miles, with a breadth in some places of up to 547 m/1,500 feet). It rises from the glaciers of Mount Kazbek in the central Caucasus, and cuts its way through spectacular gorges, eventually into the Noghay steppe to a complex delta on the western shore of the Caspian Sed. Even the lower course through the plains is too swift for navigation to be possible on it, but much water is now drawn off for irrigation purposes. During the golden period of Arabic geographical knowledge (4th/10th century), the land of Terek m…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Bukhārī

(142 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Persian historian, wrote in 1233/1818 a short summary of the geographical relations of Central Asiatic countries (Afg̲h̲ānistān, Buk̲h̲ārā, Ḵh̲īwā, Ḵh̲oḳand, Tibet and Kas̲h̲mīr), and of historical events in those countries from 1160 (accession of Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Durrānī) down to his own times. ʿAbd al-Karīm had already left his native country in 1222/1807-8 and accompanied an embassy to Constantinople; he remained there till his death, which took place after 1246/1830, and wrote his book for t…

Atek

(162 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, district in Soviet Türkmenistān on the northern slope of the frontier-mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān (Kopet Dag̲h̲), between the modern railway ¶ stations Gjaurs and Dus̲h̲ak. The name is really Turkish, Etek, "edge border" (of the mountain-chain), and is a translation of the Persian name given to this district, viz. Dāman-i Kūh, "foot of the mountain"; but the word is always written Ātak by the Persians. During the Middle Ages no special name for Atek appears to have been in use; being a district of the town of Abīward [ q.v.] it belonged to Ḵh̲urāsān. In the 10th/16th and 11th/17th cent…

Ḥaydar b. ʿAlī

(211 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
Ḥusaynī rāzī , Persian historian, b. ca. 993/1585, date of death unknown; author of a large history of the world, which in the manuscripts is sometimes called “Mad̲j̲maʿ” and sometimes “Zubdat al-tawārīk̲h̲” , and is generally known as “Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ḥaydarī” . The work is arranged according to geographical divisions in five bāb s: 1. the Arab world; 2. Persia; 3. Central Asia and the Far East; 4. the West; 5. India, each of which is arranged chronologically. They deal with political history and frequently reach into the time …

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ān

(875 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, founder of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲anate [ q.v.], the second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his chief wife Börte Fud̲j̲in. Already in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as the greatest authority on the Yasa (the tribal laws of the Mongols as codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān). Like his brothers he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211-1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219-1224). Urgānd̲j̲, the latter’s capital, was besieged by the three princes Ḏj̲oči, Čag̲h̲atay and Ögedey and taken in Ṣafar 618/27th March-24th April 1221. In the sam…

Balāsāg̲h̲ūn

(642 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
or balāsaḳūn , a town in the valley of the Ču, in what is now Kirg̲h̲izia. The medieval geographers give only vague indications as to its position. Barthold, Otčet o poyezdke v Sredniya Aziyu , St. Petersburg 1897, 39, suggests its identity with Aḳ-Pes̲h̲in in the region of Frunze. A. N. Bernshtam, Čuyskaya dolina in Materialī i issledovaniya arkheologii S.S.S.R ., No 14 (1950), 47-55, agrees with Barthold and gives a description of the site. The town was a Soghdian foundation and in Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī’s time, i.e., in the second half of the 11th century, the Soghdian language still …

Kučum K̲h̲ān

(538 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
, a Tatar K̲h̲ān of Siberia, in whose reign this country was conquered by the Russians. Abu ’l G̲h̲āzī (ed. Desmaisons, 177), is the only authority to give information regarding his origin and his genealogical relation to the other descendants of Čingiz K̲h̲ān. According to this source, he reigned for forty years in “Tūrān”, lost his eyesight towards the end of his life, was driven from his kingdom by the Russians in 1003/1594-5, took refuge with the Mang̲h̲i̊t (Nogay) and died among them. Refer…

Altūntās̲h̲

(422 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
al-ḥād̲j̲ib , abū saʿīd (his alleged second name Hārūn which occurs in a single passage of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 294, is probably due to an error of the author or of a copyist), Turkish slave, later general of the G̲h̲aznawid Sebuk Tegīn and his two successors and governor of Ḵh̲wārizm. Already under Sebuk Tegīn he attained the highest rank in the bodyguard, that of a "great ḥād̲j̲ib "; under Maḥmūd he commanded the right wing in the great battle against the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids (22 Rabīʿ II 398/4 Jan. 1008, and in 401/1010-1 he is mentioned as governor of Harāt. After the conquest of k̲h̲wārizm in 408/1…

K̲h̲ānbaliḳ̊ḳ

(514 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
(usually written K̲h̲ān Bālīḳ), the “K̲h̲ān’s town”, the name of Pekin, the capital of the Mongol Emperors after 1264 in Eastern Turkī and Mongol and afterwards adopted by the rest of the Muslim world and even by Western Europe ( Cambaluc and variants in S. Hallberg, l’Extrême Orient dans la littérature et la cartographie de l’Occident, Göteborg 1906, 105 f.). According to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn (ed. Berezin, Trudi̊ Vost . Otd . Ark̲h̲ . Obs̲h̲č . xv, Persian text, 34), Pekin (Chinese, then Čūngdū, i.e. “the middle capital”) was called K̲h̲ānbāli̊ḳ even…

Buk̲h̲ārā

(3,484 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Frye, R.N.
, a city in a large oasis in present day Uzbekistān on the lower course of the Zarafs̲h̲ān River. The city is 722 ft. (222.4 m.) above sea level and is located at 64° 38′ E. long. (Greenw.) and 39° 43′ N. Lat. We have few references to the city in pre-Islamic times. In the time of Alexander the Great there was ariother town in Sogdiana besides Marakanda (Samarḳand) on the lower course of the river but it probably did not correspond to the modern city of Buk̲h̲ārā. The oasis was inhabited from early times and towns certainly existed there. The earliest literary occurrence of the name is in Chin…

Ḳāzān

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A.
, Ḳazān , a town on the middle Volga, now the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Tatarstan in the USSR, and in the 15th and 16th centuries capital of the K̲h̲ānate of the same name. According to legendary accounts, the town was founded by Batu K̲h̲ān in a Turkish and Muslim region which had been part of the ancient kingdom of Bulg̲h̲ār [ q.v.] before the Mongol invasions. The K̲h̲ānate of Ḳāzān was founded in the first half of the 15th century by a Čingizid descendant, Ulu Muḥammad, son of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn and grandson of Toḳtami̊s̲h̲, at the time when the Gold…

Burāḳ (or rather Baraḳ) K̲h̲ān

(716 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, a ruler of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲ānate. A grandson of Mö’etüken, who fell before Bāmiyān, his father, Yesün-To’a, had been banished to China for his part in the conspiracy against the Great Ḵh̲an Möngke. Burāḳ himself began his career at the court of Möngke’s successor, Ḳubilay Ḵh̲an (1260-94). When in March 1266 Mubārak-S̲h̲āh, the son of Ḳara-Hülegü, was elected to the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲ānate, Ḳubilay dispatched Burāḳ to Mā warāʾ al-Nahr with a yarlīg̲h̲ or rescript appointing him co-regent with his cousin. Burāḳ at first concealed the yarlīg̲h̲ and then, having gained the support of…

Āk̲h̲āl Tekke

(283 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
was between 1882 and 1890 the name of a district ( uězd ) in the Russian territory ( oblastʾ ) of Transcaspia, which had been conquered by the Russians in 1881. It comprised the subdistricts of Atek [ q.v.] (chief place: the village of Kaak̲h̲ka) and Durūn [ q.v.] (Darūn; chief place: Bak̲h̲arden). Since 1890 the district is called ʿAs̲h̲ḳābād [ q.v.]—The name Āk̲h̲āl (which is of modern origin) applies to the oases on the northern slope of the Kopet Dag̲h̲ and Küren Dag̲h̲; Tekke refers to the Tekke or Teke [ q.v.] Turkmen, the present inhabitants of this region. The Islamic geographe…

ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ Kamāl al-Dīn b. D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Isḥāḳ al-Samarḳandī

(738 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Persian historian, author of the well-known Maṭlaʿ-i Saʿdayn wa-Mad̲j̲maʿ-i Baḥrayn , born in Harāt S̲h̲aʿbān 816/Nov. 1413, died there Ḏj̲umādā II 887/July-August 1482. His father was imām and ḳāḍī of the camp ( ḥaḍrat ) of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ and read out books and expounded various problems ( masāʾil ) to him ( Maṭlaʿ , ii, 704, 870, cf. 706). He received the usual type of education, and one of his teachers was his elder brother ʿAbd al-Ḳahhār. He also attended when his father read the two Ṣaḥīḥs to S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥ. al-Ḏj̲azarī (d. 833/1429) (ibid., ii, 631-1294) and received an id̲j̲āza

Burāḳ (or, more correctly, Baraḳ) Ḥād̲j̲ib

(547 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, the first of the Ḳutlug̲h̲ Ḵh̲āns of Kirmān. By origin a Ḳara-Ḵh̲itayan he was, according to Ḏj̲uwaynī, brought to Sulṭān Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh after the defeat of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itay on the Talas in 1210 and taken into his service, in which he rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib or Chamberlain. According to Nasawī he had held this same office at the court of the Gür-Ḵh̲an or ruler of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itay. Being sent on an embassy to Sulṭān Muḥammad he was forcibly detained by the latter until the final collapse of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲…
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