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Confession (of Faith)

(12,201 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Kreuzer, Siegfried | Reumann, John | Staats, Reinhart | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible – III. Church History – IV. Systematics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religions The term confession refers to various phenomena, including the confession of faith and of sin. A confession of faith can be understood as an officially sanctioned, formulaic summary of the central doctrines of a religious or a confessional community (“denomination”). Recited in cultic procedures and/or in everyday piety, i…

Bachmann, Traugott

(349 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1865, Caana bei Niesky, Oberlausitz – Feb 27, 1948, Niesky). Of rural background, Bachmann attended the missionary school of the Bohemian/Moravian Brethren (II) in Niesky from 1890 to 1892, joining the order in 1891. From 1892 to 1916, he was active as a …

Socialization

(1,371 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph | Mette, Norbert | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term socialization is used in various academic fields, especially sociology, (social) psychology, and the educational disciplines (Education, Theory of ). Already used by É. Durkheim in 1907, it experienced a wave of popularity in the 1960s and again in the 1980s. Initially it emphasized the formation of individuals by society; recently it has focused more on the interaction between individuals’ own activity and outside influences and between individuation and …

Sects

(2,685 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Both the etymology and the usage of the word sect are disputed. Derivation from Latin secare (“separate”) is possible, as is derivation from secta (from sectus, sequi, “school of thought”). English uses the word in the latter neutral sense, whereas the German equivalent Sekte is usually a pejorative exonym, corresponding to Eng. cult. M. Weber (see II below) distinguished between voluntary membership “of those who are religiously and morally qualified” in exclusive sects, in contrast to compulsory membership in the church as a Gnadenanstalt (“i…

Religiosity/Religiousness

(347 words)

Author(s): Bochinger, Christoph
[German Version] denotes the individual, subjective aspect of the religious – as contrasted with religion in the sense of something objectively given, with professional theologies, dogmas, and doctrines, or religious institutions, churches, and religious communities. Its semantic structure was developed from the late 18th century onward in the context of German Enlightenment philosophy, Idealism, and Romanticism …